The current study investigated the effects of quicklime on community structure and diversity of bacterioplankton in intensive culture ponds using the 16S rRNA based high-throughput sequencing technology. The do-minant bacterioplankton at both the phylum and genus level did not change by quicklime, but their abundance were significantly changed. The relative abundance of Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria decreased significantly from 53.80% to 47.57%, 7.00% to 5.24% and 19.72% to 17.60% respectively, whereas the relative abundance of Actinobacteria and Planctomycetes increased significantly from 6.76% to 13.47% and 8.24% to 11.10% respectively. Simi-larly, at genus level, the relative abundance of Mycobacterium and Planktothrix
decreased significantly from 0.73% to 0.49% and 0.041% to 0.0074% respectively. Quicklime application remarkably increased the species richness of bacterioplankton communities in terms of ACE and Chao 1 index as well as Shannon index and decreased the Simpon index (P
< 0.05). The results provide mechanisms on the water remediation and disease prevention of quicklime application and valuable insight into improved and more comprehensive management of liming in intensive culture ponds.