Asian carp are expanding their range throughout the Mississippi River; however, abundance is thought to be highest in reaches within close proximity to the Illinois River. In the Mississippi River, Lock and Dam 19 (L&D 19) at Keokuk, Iowa is the primary barrier to slow the expansion upstream. As Asian carp abundance increases below L&D 19, it is important to investigate potential means of control (i.e., reduction through harvest and barriers) that will prevent complete invasion of the Mississippi River above L&D 19. Silver Carp and Bighead Carp were collected below L&D 19, a subsample were implanted with ultrasonic transmitters to evaluate passage through the lock chamber and the remainder were used to determine population dynamics at the leading edge of invasion. Although the dam portion of the structure poses a complete barrier to upstream expansion, we documented lock chamber passage demonstrating the lock chamber has the capability to provide passage upstream. Based on the results of the population assessment, in order to induce recruitment overfishing at this leading edge of invasion, Asian carp will need to be intensively harvested at 300 mm and larger. The combination of commercial fishing efforts and research investigating ways to prevent passage upstream must be employed.
Silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix were introduced into the U.S. to control water quality in aquaculture ponds. From this point of origin, silver carp escaped into nearby rivers through multiple flood events. Because of their documented negative effects on native biota, silver carp have been labeled as problematic. Therefore, evaluating the biology and ecology of these non-indigenous species is critical. Multiple parameters are needed to evaluate silver carp populations (length, weight, age, and sex). Furthermore, developing methods for rapidly acquiring these data are needed. In relation to sex determination, sexual dimorphism was observed where males exhibit distinct pectoral fin ray features. Specifically, males have pronounced ridges or a " rough patch” on the dorsal surface of pectoral fins. Therefore, to test if this was an applicable way of determining silver carp gender; silver carp were collected from Midwestern U.S. rivers (N=2015) in the fall of 2011 (N=870), spring of 2012 (N=645), winter of 2013—2014 (N=202) and summer 2015 (N=323) via electrofishing. For each silver carp collected, presence (e.g., rough patch) or absence (e.g., smooth) of pronounced ridges on the top side of the pectoral fins was recorded, and an incision was made in the body cavity to identify gender. Based on the results of our evaluation, gender was correctly identified over 99% of the time (2006 out of 2015) based on the pectoral fin dimorphism. In the samples taken in the winter of 2013—2014 and summer of 2015, accuracy for silver carp shorter than 300 mm and longer than 800 mm was 53.7% (19 out of 41) while accuracy for silver carp between 300 mm and 800 mm total length was 98.9% (289 out of 292). This study provides a rapid assessment approach for evaluating silver carp gender.
The establishment of a highly efficient planktivore, Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), in the Mississippi River Basin has been documented as having negative impacts on native planktivore populations. Silver carp have the potential, to alter the trophic food web through negative interactions with native planktivores in large river systems. Due to increasing Silver carp ranges, interactions between Silver carp and other native planktivores is likely to increase. One abundant native planktivore that is often found in similar habitats as Silver carp is Gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum). Potential competition for resources exists because of overlapping habitat use and forage. Given the similarities between these two planktivores, we sought to evaluate daily growth rates and determine hatch dates of age-0 Silver carp and Gizzard shad in the Middle Mississippi River. Silver carp and Gizzard shad were collected from the Middle Mississippi River using an electrified surface trawl from June through September with sizes ranging from 21—65 mm total length for Gizzard shad and 24—85 mm total length for Silver carp. A sample of age-0 fish (n=697) was collected at the end of the growing season including 292 Gizzard shad and 405 Silver carp. Size structure (total length in mm) of Silver carp (49.05±0.41;
The lower Mississippi River (LMR) has been heavily modified for multiple human purposes such as navigation, flood control, and bank stabilization. However, the LMR simultaneously supports a diverse fish fauna that includes recreational and commercial fisheries. Due to river training and diversion structures constructed during the past 80 years, the historic characteristics of the LMR have been drastically altered and have likely influenced fishes and fisheries in the system. One common restoration measure used throughout the LMR has been to " notch” wing-dike structures that close secondary (side) river channels. Dike notching allows year-round flows through secondary channels, which enhances habitat diversity and promotes biological productivity at the ecosystem scale. Although notching is presumed good for LMR fishes and other biota, few studies have examined its effects on fish assemblages. In this study, fish assemblages were sampled at seven LMR secondary channels spanning from river kilometer (rkm) 628 (Louisiana-Mississippi, U.S.A.) upstream to rkm 1504 (Missouri-Kentucky, U.S.A.). Four secondary channels were termed " permanent” (i.e., with notched dikes) while three secondary channels were termed " temporary” (i.e., without notched dikes). Fishes were sampled by boat-mounted electrofishing conducted during falling and low stages from 1995—1997. Fish assemblages differed between permanent and temporary secondary channels, and varied somewhat between falling and low stages. Gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum), threadfin shad (D. petenense), and white bass (Morone chrysops) demonstrated consistent preferences for low-current conditions associated with temporary secondary channels. Conversely, blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus), flathead catfish (Pylodictis olivaris), and freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) were more associated with permanent secondary channels. Future restoration strategies in the LMR should consider dike notching and resultant maintenance of permanent secondary channels in selected river reaches. However, temporary secondary channels also contain unique fish species, and also appear to be important sites of riverine primary production. Restoration strategies should consider a balance of both secondary channel types, which should support the greatest biodiversity for the LMR ecosystem.
Knowledge of the vulnerability of different species and size groups to various types of fishing methods is vital to the development of optimal harvesting strategies and rational exploitation of fish resources. In this study, the selectivity of four types of fishing methods (weir nets, gill nets, electrofishing, and cormorants) used simultaneously in a typical multi-species shallow lake (Lake Niushan, China) within the Yangtze River basin, was compared for catch composition, efficiency, and size selection. Species selectivity was evaluated with the index of relative importance (IRI). Potential fishing effects on the trophic structure of fish community were analyzed by calculating the mean trophic level (MTL) of the catches and the weight ratio between prey and predator fishes. Results indicated that the use of weir nets and electrofishing should be reduced or eliminated, because they were relatively unselective and caught many species, including juvenile individuals. Fishing efforts of cormorants should be restricted due to their high fishing efficiency, especially on piscivorous fishes. Gill nets with appropriate mesh size are likely to be a more sustainable fishing method since they were more selective in capturing larger individuals and could balance the prey-predator relationship. We suggest shifting from single-species approaches toward multi-species management, and taking trophic interactions into account to better manage fishery resources.
To assess possible bias of different fishing methods is essential to appropriate fisheries management. In the current study, fish assemblage structure of a shallow Yangtze River lake was assessed by combining one international standard sampling gear (multi-mesh gillnet), and one traditional Chinese gear (the dense-mesh weir). Using Lake Biandantang as a case study, a total of 27 fish species were collected from the two gears combined, including 2 new species that had not been recorded previously in this lake. Results suggested that fish assemblages had changed greatly compared to a previous study conducted in the 1990s. Specifically, differences were found in species composition, abundance, biomass, and length distributions collected from the two gears. Difference in total length (TL) distributions of fishes caught was the most conspicuous change. Fishes collected from the weir ranged from 40—70 mmTL, whereas fishes collected from gillnets ranged from 90—140 mmTL. Multivariate ordinations based on relative abundance and biomass data also indicated fish assemblage structural differences between the two gears. The comparative results showed that the multi-mesh gillnet was effective at assessing fish assemblages in shallow lakes, such as those found along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. Additionally, assessments using only one gear could have some limitations with respect to interpreting fish assemblage changes over time.
We analysed spatial pattern in the fish assemblage structure along a longitudinal gradient of the Upper Yangtze River and the Three Gorges Reservoir. We tested the hypothesis that shifts from lotic to lentic environment affect the richness and structure of the fish assemblage. Samplings were carried out from 2005 to 2012 in four zones:(1) Hejiang reach, river upstream from the reservoir; (2) Mudong reach, upper part of the reservoir; (3) Wanzhou reach, middle part of the reservoir, and (4) Zigui reach, lower part of the reservoir. A total of 368706 fish representing 132 native species of 17 families were collected during the study period with Cyprinidae as the dominant group. The results showed that the native species richness decreased while the non-native species increased from river (Hejiang reach) to reservoir (Zigui reach). Patterns in fish assemblage ordination evaluated by correspondence analysis reflected a clear division of the riverine and reservoir zones. Uppermost sampling stations were characterized by species characteristic of flowing waters, whereas in the lowland most lentic species were captured. Further, 22 species, three functional groups (rheophilic, equilibrium, insectivorous) were identified for the upper reach and 16 species, three functional groups (herbivorous, planktivorous, stagnophilic) for the lowland reach by indicator species analysis (P<0.05). Therefore, it is evident that impoundment of the Three Gorges Reservoir is the major driving factor to structuring the fish assemblage structure along the longitudinal gradient from river to the reservoir. Different fisheries management actions should be made to conserve or rehabilitate native fish assemblages and control invasive non-native species.
There is limited information available on effects of aquaculture on lake ecosystems. Community structure and biodiversity of phytoplankton were investigated from July to September, 2015 in 23 lakes in the middle reach of the Yangtze River Basin, which include four groups: reservoir group (A), aquaculture ban group (B), low stocking aquaculture group (C) and high stocking aquaculture group (D). The analysis showed that dominant genera of the four groups were different. Group A was dominated by Pseudanabaena (Y=0.642) and Planktolyngbya (Y=0.064). Group B was dominated by Merismopedia (Y=0.428), Planktolyngbya (Y=0.118), Pseudanabaena (Y=0.133), and Scenedesmus (Y=0.066). Group C was dominated by Pseudanabaena (Y=0.395), Merismopedia (Y=0.097), and Planktolyngbya (Y=0.122). Group D was dominated by Merismopedia (Y=0.308), Microcystis (Y=0.118), and Pseudanabaena (Y=0.077). The phytoplankton abundance in group A was significantly lower than those in other lake groups (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in Shannon-Wiener index, Margalef index and Pielou index of phytoplankton among the four lake groups. The study indicated that fish culture could affect the abundance and dominant genera of phytoplankton, which may provide some implications for lake ecosystem management.
Samples of Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774) were collected monthly from March 2011 to February 2012 in the Datong Lake to study its population dynamics and secondary production in its native environment. A total of 4,108C. fluminea were collected and measured, with shell length (SL) ranging from 3.41 to 29.58 mm, and wet weight (WW) ranged from 0.005 to 10.03 g. The calculated SL-WW equation was log WW = –3.52+3.08 log SL (R2=0.97), which showed that the growth curve of C. fluminea followed a positive allometric pattern. The recruitment patterns peaked in one from March to April and the other one during the months of August to October. The mean annual abundance and biomass (
A comprehensive investigation on macrophyte community in Hongze Lake was conducted seasonally from May 2010 to February 2011. Overall, twelve species representing eight families of macrophytes were identified in Hongze Lake, including nine species of submerged plants, two species of floating-leaved plants, and one species of emerging plant. In general, Potamogeton malaianus, P. maackianu, P. pectinatus and P. crispus were the four dominant species throughout the whole year, the highest biomass of macrophytes was presented in autumn, followed by summer and winter, while spring had the lowest biomass of macrophytes. Based on field data, we used kriging interpolation in ArcGis to map the spatiotemporal distribution of the entire macrophyte community as well as each of the four dominant species. From the GIS maps we observed that the northern area of the lake, namely the Chengzihu region, had the highest biomass of macrophytes potentially as a result of better water quality and greater transparency. Potential factors that affected the community structure, biomass, and distribution patterns of macrophytes considerably were then discussed. The results of this study illuminate the need for more information on the role and importance of aquatic macrophytes in shallow lake ecosystems. Conservation of macrophytes should be taken to maintain the lake ecosystem health.
A tag-release-recapture study was conducted to evaluate effects of size at release on survival, growth and yield of hatchery-reared mandarin fish Siniperca chautsi fingerlings stocked in a shallow Yangtze lake. In May and June 2012, a total of 2400 juvenile mandarin fish were graded into three size groups, identified with coded wire tags and tail fin clipping, and released into Xiaosai Lake. Mandarin fish were collected after the lake drained in December 2012. Overall, a total of 973 mandarin fish individuals were captured, with an average survival rate of 40.5%. Survival rate of large sized group (63%) is more than three times higher than that of small sized group (19.5%) and 1.5 times higher than that of middle sized group (39.1%). The mean final length and weight of mandarin fish increased with the increase of release size and showed significant difference among groups. Yield was significantly affected by release size, which was the highest in large sized group and the lowest in small sized group. The net income of stocked mandarin fish increased with the increase of fish size at release. Our results indicated that mandarin fish size at release can have a major impact on success of hatchery releases, and it is suggested that the optimum release size of mandarin fish should not be less than 50 mm in Xiaosai Lake.
The Ptychobarbus dipogon of the Schizothoracinae subfamily, is an endemic economic fish species in Tibet Autonomous Region, China. Due to environment deterioration and invasion of alien species the population size of this species is decreasing; a study is urgently required to determine fecundity and reproductive strategy in order to conserve this natural resource. In this study, to investigate the fecundity and its relationship of body length, weight and age, we captured 1030 individuals in the middle Yarlung Zangbo River during two separate periods, one from February to March in 2013 and the other from February to June in 2014. The results showed that the standard length (SL) of males is concentrated in the 325—400 mm range, and the SL of females is above 375 mm. Sixty five females were at stages IV and V of sexual maturity, with SL 320—500 mm, weight 411.6—1328.0 g. Using the SL 50% method, the first female sexual maturity age was estimated to be 13.0 years and about 360.90 mm, while the first male maturity age was estimated to be 13.5 years and length 354.53 mm. The distributions of egg sizes, gonadal developmental stages and gonadosomatic indexes show that this species follows a synchronous spawning pattern concentrated in the period February to March, with an absolute fecundity at 3487 eggs, with a fecundity to SL ratio of 7.2 eggs/mm and fecundity to weight of 4.3 eggs/g. The absolute fecundity is positively correlated to the SL and the weight, but not significantly correlated to age. The overall male-female ratio was 1.23 鲶1. Suggestions for its conservation have been made based on its low fecundity, late maturity and short breeding period.
During the reproductive migration of Chinese mitten crab in the Yangtze River estuary, the relationship between fecundity and carapace width of released and wild Chinese mitten crab populations was analyzed, and then the differences between the wild and released populations were compared. The results showed that, with the increase of carapace width (CW), the fecundity (F) of released and wild population crabs increased significantly (P<0.05). In the same range of carapace width, there was no significant differences of the fecundity between the wild and released populations (P>0.05). Regression analysis showed that the relationship between theF and CW of the released population belongs to exponential function, which is F=3.979CW6.208 (R2=0.822). In addition, the relationship between F and CW of the wild population is F=1.696CW6.636 (R2=0.673). Covariance analysis showed that the curves of the wild and released crab populations fit well in significant 0.05. It could be concluded that the fecundity of the wild and released populations was at the same level. There was no significant difference between the wild and released crab population on the relationship of F and CW. The released population could reproduce well in the natural water of the Yangtze River estuary.
The yellow perch, Perca flavescens, is an economically significant freshwater fish species in the Midwest of the United States. TypeⅠ markers are useful for comparative mapping and other genetic analyses, but limited quantities in yellow perch. In the present study, EST containing microsatellite sequences were identified and characterized for yellow perch by data mining from updated public EST databases. Out of 21968 EST sequences of yellow perch, about 14.4% of ESTs contain repeat motifs of various types and length. CA repeat was the most abundant dinucleotides. Out of the 62 EST-SSRs for which PCR primers were designed, 15 loci showed polymorphic in a yellow perch population with the alleles per locus ranging from 4 to 19 (average 9). The observed (HO) and expected (HE) heterozygosity of these EST-SSRs were 0.103—0.929 and 0.116—0.934, respectively. Four EST-SSR loci significantly deviated from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) expectation, and the remaining 11 loci were in HWE. These new EST-SSR markers should provide sufficient polymorphism for population genetic studies and genomic mapping of yellow perch.
The histology of gonadal development in Ptychobarbus dipogon was studied by using conventional paraffin sections and HE staining, in order to obtain information on its reproductive systems useful for its artificial breeding. The results showed that the development of oocytes can be divided into five phases, and ovarian development can be divided into six stages. In stage V ovaries, ovum worship was found to occur, indicated by the 1.38 鲶1 ratio of small ova to large ova. Phase 3 oocytes were characterized by appearance of yolk granules and follicles; phase 4 oocytes by rapid increase of yolk granules, and the movement of the nucleus toward the animal poles; phase 5 by the fusion of yolk granules, and the separation of oocytes from follicular membranes to float in the ovarian cavity. Male P. dipogen had lobular testes, and their germ cells can be categorized into spermatogonia, spermatocytes; spermatids; and spermatozoa. Their testes also developed in six stages. The species followed a batch-synchronous spawning pattern.
Sexual dimorphism refers to the morphological differentiation between males and females in the same population, such as sizes, morphological features, and colors. Cold water fish Glyptosternum maculatum, is an endemic teleost species of notable economic importance and with high potential for controlled rearing of the species in Tibet Autonomous Region. In this study, morphological measurements and related analysis were conducted on sexually mature G. maculatum to investigate their morphological differences in Tibet Autonomous Region. Results indicated the sexually mature populations indeed display really displayed significant sexual dimorphism: males exhibited significantly greater body length, weight, and males also exhibited in addition to greater tail length while females exhibited significantly greater eye diameter, body depth, trunk length, and lengths of dorsal, pectoral, pelvic, anal, and caudal fins at a given body length. Principal components analysis on 16 morphological parameters showed that the differences were largely due to features of the body shape (including lengths of body parts and fins) and the head, and differences in the above features differences contributed 76.7%. The t-statistic test on the allometry index b in the total length-weight function showed that during the breeding season, the total lengths and weights of G. maculatum females developed proportionally, while the male specimens were allometrical.
This study is based on monthly sampling (from April 2013 to April 2015) of 18 fish species representing three families. Samples were obtained using benthic fyke-nets, block nets, and multi-mesh gillnets in Lake Kuilei, a shallow lake of the Yangtze River basin, China (N 31º24′ , E 120º51′). Using ordinary least-squares linear regression, length-weight relationships of these fish species were estimated, with equations for 3 species reported for the first time. The maximum total length records of the 15 species exceeded those reported in FishBase. This paper provides new LWR equations for these species to be included in FishBase.
This study examined anesthetic behaviors of Schizothorax o’connori Llord in two size ranges as induced by MS-222, to acquire useful information on anesthesia of said highland fish species in out-of-water activities (surgery, labeling, measurement, etc.). Test results indicated that for both large (25.0±1.5) cm and small-sized (14.8±2.3) cm specimens, respiration rates showed no significant change in anesthetic stages Ⅰ to Ⅲ, and only begun to significantly decline after entering stage Ⅳ. The effective concentrations of MS-222 were 150—180 mg/L and 150 mg/L for two sizes, respectively. The 150—180 mg/L caused large specimens to enter anesthetic stage Ⅳ within 5min, and recovered within 5min; the 150 mg/L caused small specimens to enter stage Ⅳ within 5min, and recovered within 7min; both doses ensured a 100% survival rate after immersion for 20min. For large specimens anesthetized at 180 mg/L for 5min and exposed to air for 0—15min, there was no significant difference in recovery times (P>0.05); for small specimens anesthetized at 150 mg/L for 5min and exposed to air for 0—15min, there were significant differences in recovery (P<0.05).
Schizothorax macropogon and Ptychobarbus dipogon are important economic fishes in the Yarlung Zangbo River. Both are Schizothoracinaes containing a variety of essential fatty acids with high nutritional values. As food products, the textural characteristics of their meat determine important factors like taste or methods of treatment. To explore the preservation and utilization of fish resources in the Tibet Autonomous Region, China, the texture profile analysis (TPA) method was used to analyze 12 textural parameters. Fish were captured from the Yarlung Zangbo River in Shigatse and Nyingchi City. Principal component analysis showed that the texture of P. dipogon captured from the Nyingchi segment was different from the same species captured in the Shigatse segment, and different from S. macropogon captured from both segments. Factorial analysis indicated that the textural characteristics of Schizothoracinae fishes in Tibet Autonomous Region can be summarized as hardness indices, overcome attraction indices and contractility indices, of which the accumulated variance contribution rate of the first four principal component factors was 81.472%. The three categories of the four principal component axes could be the main deciding parameters of the textural characteristics of Schizothoracinae fishes in Tibet Autonomous Region. This provides scientific data for subsequent development and utilization of Schizothoracinae fishes from the Yarlung Zangbo River in different geographical areas.
Our study examined spatial distribution differences of rotifer resting eggs (RRE) in lakes of the Poyang Lake Wetland Area during dry season, January 2015. Field sampling was conducted in both Nanshen Lake and Baisha Lake. We found that densities of RRE in different habitats were significantly different (P<0.05), and their distribution had an obvious gradient. The highest mean density was in the marshland vegetation area of Nanshen Lake, where it was (3.34±1.28) ind./cm3. The density of resting eggs in the Zizania latifolia area was up to 5.45 ind./cm3. The density of RRE was different spatially, with the greatest in the vegetation area, then in the muddy area, and then the lowest in the water area. ANOVAs results showed that water depth, vegetation, and sediment had significant effects on RRE (P=0.001, P=0.007, P<0.001, respectively). The trend of resting egg densities in different aquatic habitats was: emergent aquatic plant > marshland vegetation > floating-leaf plants > submerged plants. The distribution of RRE in areas of different water depths was inconsistent. The density of RRE was higher in the hard than soft sediment.
Many efforts have been devoted to developing, constructing and refining fishways or fish passage facilities to facilitate the target fish species to pass barriers in fluvial systems. Once dominated by an engineering-focused approach, fishways science nowadays involves a wide range of disciplines from fish behaviour to socioeconomics, and to complex modeling of passage prioritization options in river networks. Designing efficient fishways, with minimal passage delay and post-passage impacts, requires adaptive management and continued innovations. After the completion of fishways construction, corresponding management systems usually need to be improved as well. In the current study, we first reviewed international fishways adaptive management systems (e.g., aspects of development, construction, and management) from 1991 to 2017 reporting on " fishway”, " fish passage”, " fish” and " dam”. The functions of fishways gradually transferred from conservation of economic stocks to overall biodiversity conservation, from facilitating upwards to both upwards and downwards passages, from developing a single project to considering the entire river basin, from fish passing function to habitats restorations as well, and from pure engineering construction to considering adaptive management. Finally, we discussed adaptive management systems and management prospects of fishways for China.