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溪流鱼类群落对低水头坝的大小及功能的响应——以皖南山区河源溪流为例
李强, 张东, 宛凤英, 李羽如, 储玲, 严云志
, doi: 10.7541/2018.119
[摘要](241) [HTML全文](132) [PDF 505KB](26)
摘要:
以皖南山区的河源溪流为研究区域, 根据2016年7月和11月两次的调查数据, 在区分土著物种和本地入侵物种的基础上, 初步比较研究了低水头坝的坝上蓄水区和冲刷区鱼类群落的季节动态及所受水坝大小和功能的影响。共采集鱼类24种, 隶属4目10科, 其中土著鱼类13种, 本地入侵鱼类11种。尽管坝下冲刷区的鱼类群落无显著季节变化, 但坝上蓄水区的鱼类群落季节动态显著, 其中11月的鱼类个体数显著高于7月。水坝大小对鱼类群落的影响相对较小, 仅冲刷区入侵鱼类群落结构随水坝大小显著变化; 水坝功能对鱼类群落的影响较大, 蓄水区土著鱼类群落及冲刷区入侵鱼类群落等都随水坝功能显著变化——同蓄水坝相比, 引渠坝的蓄水区中宽鳍鱲较少但中华花鳅和吻虾虎鱼较多, 且引渠坝的冲刷区中高体鳑鲏和泥鳅具有更高多度。研究表明, 在研究区域内, 低水头坝对鱼类群落分布的影响视水坝蓄水功能而不同, 而水坝大小的相对重要性较低。研究也进一步证实, 因亲流性土著鱼类与广布性入侵鱼类对低水头坝干扰的响应不同, 在开展有关人类活动对溪流鱼类多样性的影响评价时, 有必要区分土著物种和入侵物种来进行, 以确保研究结论的科学性。
尼罗罗非鱼β2m基因SNP位点和单倍型与无乳链球菌抗性的关联分析
张栋, 高风英, 卢迈新, 曹建萌, 刘志刚, 可小丽, 王淼
, doi: 10.7541/2018.111
[摘要](107) [HTML全文](58) [PDF 558KB](16)
摘要:
β2-微球蛋白(β2-microglobulin, β2m)作为MHCⅠ类分子的亚基, 在鱼类的免疫系统中发挥重要作用。实验采用直接测序法从P0代尼罗罗非鱼(Oreochromis niloticus)的β2m基因组序列中筛选到30个SNPs, 其中1个SNP位于5ʹUTR, 16个SNPs位于外显子区域(15个非同义突变位点, 1个同义突变位点), 9个SNPs位于内含子区域, 4个SNPs位于3ʹUTR。利用snapshot分型法对F1代的102尾易感群体和102尾抗病群体进行基因分型, 并通过Popgen32和PIC-CALC软件统计分析尼罗罗非鱼β2m基因序列的SNPs的HeHoNePIC等遗传参数, 表明易感群体中7个SNPs属于中度多态水平(0.25<PIC<0.5), 抗病群体中25个SNPs属于中度多态水平(0.25<PIC<0.5)。采用SPSS 23.0软件分析了30个SNPs在F1代2个群体中的基因型频率和等位基因频率, 分析其与链球菌抗性或易感性状之间的相关性。结果表明: 24个SNPs的基因型和等位基因频率与无乳链球菌(Streptococcus agalactiae)抗性/易感性状显著相关(P<0.05)。通过连锁不平衡分析发现30个SNPs构成4个单倍块和14种单倍型。其中, 4个单倍型与无乳链球菌抗性性状显著相关(P<0.05), 4个单倍型与易感性状显著相关(P<0.05)。标签SNP分析发现, 单倍块2中的4个SNPs和单倍块3中的13个SNPs彼此之间高度连锁(r2>0.9), 这意味着我们在β2m基因中发现2个htSNPs。研究筛选到的与链球菌抗性/易感性状相关的SNP位点及单倍型具有辅助尼罗罗非鱼抗链球菌病品种选育的潜力。
SUPPLEMENTAL DESCRIPTION OF MYXOBOLUS HAICHENGENSIS CHEN, 1958 (MYXOZOA: MYXOSPOREA) INFECTING THE GILLS OF ABBOTTINA RIVULARIS BASILEWAKY: MORPHOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR DATA
Peng LI, Xin ZHAO, Bing-Wen XI, Jun XIE
, doi: 10.7541/2018.117
[摘要](243) [HTML全文](78) [PDF 991KB](66)
摘要:
Myxobolus haichengensis Chen, 1958 forms numerous small plasmodia on the gill filaments of wild cyprinid Abbottina rivularis Basilewaky. The species described originally was lacking important characters, which made the accurate identification difficult. Here, we supplemented its characteristics with morphological and molecular data. Plasmodia of M. haichengensis are oval. Mature spores are ellipsoidal-shaped in frontal view and fusiform-shaped in lateral view, measuring (10.8±0.7) μm (10.1—11.5 μm) long, (8.1±0.5) μm (7.5—9.0 μm) wide, and (5.7±0.4) μm (5.2—9.0 μm) thick; two unequal polar capsule are pyriform with tapering anterior, large polar capsule averaging (4.7±0.5) μm (4.8—6.7 μm) long and (2.5±0.2) μm (3.2—4.3 μm) wide; small polar capsule averaging (4.4±0.2) μm (4.1—4.8 μm) long and (2.2±0.1) μm (2.0—2.5 μm) wide; polar filaments coil with four to five turns. The nuclear 18S rDNA sequence was obtained and deposited in GenBank (KY965936), and sequences alignment analyses revealed that M. haichengensis was most similar with the actinosporean Hexactinomyxon type 2 (AY162272, 97%) released from the freshwater tublificid oligochaete Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri.
达氏鲟gpr54基因的克隆及Kisspeptin注射对其表达的影响
岳华梅, 叶欢, 阮瑞, 刘志刚, 李创举
, doi: 10.7541/2018.110
[摘要](81) [HTML全文](122) [PDF 561KB](5)
摘要:
G蛋白偶联受体54(GPR54, G protein-coupled receptor 54)是kisspeptin (Kiss)的受体蛋白。Kisspeptin/GPR54系统通过调节促性腺激素释放激素(GnRH)的活性来参与鱼类生殖调控。为了研究Kisspeptin/GPR54系统对达氏鲟(Acipenser dabryanus)GnRH的调控功能, 克隆得到达氏鲟2个gpr54基因的全长cDNA序列, 命名为dsgpr54-1及dsgpr54-2, 分别编码379和368个氨基酸。氨基酸序列比对及进化树分析表明, 达氏鲟Gpr54与四足动物Gpr54序列一致性较高, 亲缘关系较近。荧光定量PCR研究发现, dsgpr54-1的转录本在精巢、卵巢、下丘脑、垂体、中脑及端脑等组织中均有表达, 且在下丘脑中转录水平最高; 而dsgpr54-2仅在脑组织中转录, 且在垂体、中脑及下丘脑中表达丰度均较高。为了研究Gpr54是否可以与其配体Kisspeptin结合调控下丘脑中gnrh基因的表达, 分别合成了达氏鲟Kiss-1和Kiss-2的核心十肽(10 nmol/L、1000 nmol/L), 腹腔注射到9月龄达氏鲟。结果表明, 不同浓度Kiss-1、Kiss-2注射均引起gpr54基因表达量升高, 并且10 nmol/L Kiss-2注射能够显著促进dsgpr54-2的表达(P<0.05)。另外, 不同浓度Kiss-1注射均造成了gnrh转录水平的下降; 而10 nmol/L Kiss-2注射使得gnrh1表达量上升, 而gnrh2的表达量下降, 1000 nmol/L Kiss-2注射则引起gnrh1表达量的下降, gnrh2的表达量没有显著变化。上述研究结果表明, 达氏鲟gpr54基因均能与其配体kiss-1、kiss-2相结合, 但表现出一定的受体-配体选择性差异。Kiss-1、Kiss-2通过激活Gpr54的活性, 调控下丘脑中gnrh基因的表达, 且其调控功能存在差异。
南海石斑鱼苗种肠道微孢子虫病病原的鉴定
颜远义, 刘新华, 徐力文, 章晋勇
, doi: 10.7541/2018.116
[摘要](71) [HTML全文](35) [PDF 727KB](6)
摘要:
研究通过组织病理分析、超微结构观察以及分子特征分析对石斑鱼(Epinephelus spp.)苗种肠道微孢子虫病病原进行了鉴定。其为一肠孢虫属新种, 命名为石斑鱼肠孢虫(Enterospora epinepheli sp. n.), 专性寄生于细胞核内, 发育过程与肠孢虫属模式种黄道蟹肠孢虫(Enterospora canceri)一致。早期单核裂殖体通过一层简单的电子薄膜与宿主细胞核质隔离。随后, 单核裂殖体发育形成多核裂殖原质团。此时, 细胞核出现明显肥大, 有的甚至被裂殖子胀破。裂殖原质团进一步发育形成多核产孢体, 并开始出现许多高电子密度的囊泡状结构。这些与极丝及锚状盘有关的囊泡状结构聚集在藕核周围, 并组装形成微孢子虫特征性结构(挤出装置)前体。随后, 产孢体原生质团通过连续分裂形成一个个孢子母细胞。孢子母细胞与细胞核直接接触, 并直接发育形成成熟孢子。成熟孢子椭圆形, 孢子长(1.56±0.31) μm (1.07—1.96 μm), 宽(1.08±0.98) μm (0.93—1.28 μm)。 孢壁分为3层, 外壁电子密度高, 厚(15.51±0.95) nm (9.87—26.18 nm), 内壁为电子透明层, 较外层更厚(81.13±2.71) nm (57.16—110.81 nm), 最里面为孢质膜。极丝为同型极丝, 共5—6圈, 分2排排列。组织病理学分析发现该微孢子虫寄生于肠道上皮杯状细胞核内, 肠壁脱落的内容物中也发现大量的微孢子虫。序列比对发现该种与之前报道的石斑鱼肠道微孢子虫待定种(Microsporidium sp.)序列基本一致, 与其他相似性较高的种类的遗传距离在0.162—0.225。系统发育关系分析显示肠胞虫科的种类明显分为两支, 石斑鱼肠孢虫和肠孢虫属其他种类及毕氏肠胞虫聚为一个独立分支, 但不与该分枝中任何种类形成姊妹支。
Cd2+对紫球藻生长及光化学活性的影响
张仁璇, 姜思, 佟少明
, doi: 10.7541/2018.127
[摘要](79) [HTML全文](41) [PDF 669KB](9)
摘要:
以紫球藻(Porphyridium purpureum)为供试材料, 研究了5个不同浓度的Cd2+对紫球藻的细胞密度、叶绿素a含量、藻红蛋白含量及ATP含量的影响, 以及对紫球藻的最大光量子产额(Fv/Fm)、实际光量子产额(YII)、相对电子传递效率(ETR)及非光化学淬灭(NPQ)的影响, 探讨了各荧光参数在不同浓度的Cd2+胁迫下的变化规律。研究结果表明, 在Cd2+胁迫的6d内, 紫球藻的生长速度显著下降, 且Cd2+的浓度越高, 生长速度下降越快; Cd2+胁迫显著的减少叶绿素a、藻红蛋白及ATP含量, 且浓度越高, 减少的幅度越大; 在Cd2+浓度低于200 μmol/L时, 紫球藻的叶绿素荧光参数Fv/FmYII及ETR呈现先下降后上升的趋势,而且随着胁迫时间的延长, 下降幅度逐步增大; NPQ在低浓度下(<200 μmol/L)呈现显著上升趋势, 高浓度下(>500 μmol/L)呈现显著下降趋势。因此, 水体中浓度超过50 μmol/L的Cd2+就会显著影响紫球藻的生长及光化学活性, 水生环境中不断累积的Cd2+将会对紫球藻的生态平衡产生影响。
利用鱼类性逆转技术创制黄颡鱼XX雄鱼的方法
杨天毅, 熊阳, 丹成, 郭稳杰, 刘汉勤, 桂建芳, 梅洁
, doi: 10.7541/2018.107
[摘要](77) [HTML全文](34) [PDF 703KB](10)
摘要:
目前黄颡鱼(Pelteobagrus fulvidraco Richardson)生产上使用的母本非常混杂, 成为影响黄颡鱼产业发展的一个突出问题。建立一个优良性状稳定的全雌家系对于全雄黄颡鱼和杂交黄颡鱼的生产尤为重要, 而将XX雌性黄颡鱼逆转为XX雄性黄颡鱼是创制全雌家系中的关键一步。黄颡鱼性染色体连锁分子标记的开发为鉴定XX雄鱼提供了技术支撑。研究使用不同浓度的17α-甲基睾酮(MT)和芳香化酶抑制剂来曲唑(LZ)处理黄颡鱼鱼苗54d (7—60日龄)。61日龄测量并统计各组鱼的存活率、体长及体重。解剖观察性腺结构, 结合性腺组织切片和性别分子标记分析各组实验鱼中XX鱼性腺发育情况。结果显示: 2种药物对黄颡鱼的存活率影响较小, 与对照组没有显著差异; MT处理的XX性腺为空腔状精小囊结构, 不能逆转为功能性精巢; 适当剂量的LZ可以将XX雌性黄颡鱼性逆转成正常的XX雄鱼, 诱导效果随着剂量的增加而增强。用完全逆转的XX生理雄鱼分别与XX雌鱼和YY雌鱼交配, 能够正常繁殖并具备较好的繁殖能力。研究建立了一种使用芳香化酶抑制剂来曲唑创制黄颡鱼XX雄鱼的方法, 为全雄黄颡鱼的品种改良及新品种的培育奠定了基础。
褪黑素对非生物胁迫下雨生红球藻中虾青素积累的影响
岳陈陈, 丁巍, 李涛, 赵鹏, 徐军伟, 余旭亚
, doi: 10.7541/2018.128
[摘要](53) [HTML全文](25) [PDF 694KB](2)
摘要:
以雨生红球藻Haematococcus pluvialis LUGU株为研究对象, 研究在高光照和缺氮胁迫条件下, 添加不同浓度褪黑素(melatonin, MLT)对雨生红球藻生长、虾青素积累、活性氧(ROS)、信号分子及dxs基因表达量的影响。结果表明, 外源添加10 μmol/L MLT可有效提高藻细胞中虾青素的含量, 最高可达31.32 mg/g, 是对照组(13.27 mg/g)的2.36倍; 抑制了细胞内ROS水平, 上调了信号分子一氧化氮(NO)和水杨酸(SA)的含量; 此外, dxs基因表达水平比对照组明显提高, 最高达11.3倍。研究表明, 在非生物胁迫条件下, 雨生红球藻中虾青素的大量积累可能与外源MLT调控细胞内ROS、信号分子及基因表达有关。
α-酮戊二酸对氨氮胁迫下草鱼鳃Na+/K+-ATP酶活性及血液生化指标的影响[1]
赵玉蓉, 付莹, 王红权
, doi: 10.7541/2018.122
[摘要](61) [HTML全文](28) [PDF 512KB](3)
摘要:
试验旨在研究饲粮添加α-酮戊二酸(α-ketoglutarate, α-KG)对氨氮胁迫下草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)鳃Na+/K+-ATP酶活性及血液生化指标的影响。选取初始体重为(24.79±0.11)g的健康草鱼, 随机分为3个处理组(对照组, 养于曝气后氨氮浓度为1.51 mg/L的自来水中并饲喂基础饲粮; 氨氮组, 养于氨氮浓度为18.37 mg/L的水中并饲喂基础饲粮; α-KG组, 养于氨氮浓度为18.37 mg/L的水中并饲喂添加0.75% α-KG的饲粮)。每处理组设3个重复, 每个重复30尾鱼, 养殖试验为期42d, 分别于第1、第14、第28和第42天采样。结果表明:在饲料中添加α-KG能够有效缓解氨氮胁迫导致的草鱼血浆氨含量(1d)、谷草转氨酶(Aspartate transaminase, AST)活性(14d)、碱性磷酸酶(Alkaline phosphatase, ALP)活性(28d)的显著升高和鳃Na+/K+-ATP酶活性(28d)、血浆谷丙转氨酶(Alanine aminotransaminase, ALT)(28d和42d)活性、血浆尿素(UREA)含量(28d)的显著降低, 显著增加氨氮胁迫下草鱼血浆球蛋白(Globulin, GLB)含量(28d)。即饲粮α-KG的适量添加能够有效缓解草鱼氨氮胁迫所致的血氨含量升高, 维持氨氮胁迫下草鱼鳃Na+/K+-ATP酶、血浆谷丙转氨酶、谷草转氨酶、碱性磷酸酶的活性和血浆球蛋白、尿素含量的稳定, 从而有利于草鱼缓解氨氮胁迫。
洱海微囊藻水华的水生态风险评估研究
刘毅, 杨劭, 刘晓峰
, doi: 10.7541/2018.131
[摘要](174) [HTML全文](92) [PDF 491KB](15)
摘要:
以洱海微囊藻水华为研究对象, 借鉴生态毒理学风险评估思路对藻类水华的水生态风险进行评价。研究通过暴露实验以及查阅文献获取了微囊藻水华对底栖动物、浮游动物、鱼类和沉水植物的效应数据, 采用毒性百分数排序法推导了洱海微囊藻水华的急性和慢性效应藻密度, 用风险商值评估微囊藻水华密度的水生态风险。进一步结合水华盖度和持续时间制定了微囊藻水华的急性、慢性生态风险评价表。研究结果表明, 微囊藻水华的急性生态风险分为低中高三级, 分别为微囊藻藻密度小于3.4×106 cells/L为低风险,微囊藻藻密度在3.4×106—3.4×107 cells/L之间为中风险,微囊藻密度大于3.4×107 cells/L为高风险。慢性生态风险同样分为低中高三级, 分别为微囊藻藻密度小于1.1×106 cells/L为低风险,微囊藻藻密度在1.1×106—1.1×107 cells/L为中风险,微囊藻密度大于1.1×107 cells/L为高风险。实际应用中需综合微囊藻水华密度、面积和持续时间, 制定洱海微囊藻水华水生态风险评价标准。当微囊藻水华处于中风险状态时, 应启动预警、强化水质管理和生物抑制措施, 当处于高风险状态时, 应采取水华的应急处理措施。研究结果有助于洱海微囊藻水华的科学管理。
不同饵料对稀有鲫生长和繁殖的影响
赵月月, 刘小红, 王志坚
, doi: 10.7541/2018.123
[摘要](68) [HTML全文](27) [PDF 731KB](7)
摘要:
饵料对鱼类生长发育和繁殖具有重要影响。为了筛选稀有鲫(Gobiocypris rarus)幼鱼和成鱼阶段最适投喂方式, 实验将出膜5周末(日龄为35 day after hatching)的幼鱼随机分为5个组: A组投喂丰年虫; B组每周前6d (days)投喂丰年虫, 后1d投喂商业化微颗粒S3饲料; C组每周前3.5d投喂丰年虫, 后3.5d投喂饲料; D组每周前1d投喂丰年虫, 后6d投喂饲料; E组一直投喂饲料; 各组均采用饱食投喂策略。每2周统计生长、存活指标, 直至第21周(147 dah), 在17周(119 dah)取材用于观察性腺发育程度。在产卵后统计各组产卵量、孵化率和子代畸形率。结果显示: (1)E组存活率和特定生长率显著低于其他组(P<0.05); (2)从产卵量、孵化率和子代畸形率上看, B组产卵量显著高于其他组(P<0.05); (3)从性腺组织学上看, 不同投喂方法对精巢的成熟度无显著影响, 但投喂过丰年虫的稀有鲫卵巢发育成熟度显著优于E组。研究结果提示:适量加入丰年虫比单一投喂活饵或饲料更有利于稀有鲫的生长和繁殖。建议在标准化养殖过程中, 幼鱼和成鱼期的稀有鲫采取丰年虫与饲料投喂频次比值为6﹕1的方式最佳。
我国北方地区鲤浮肿病毒的流行情况调查与监测分析
徐立蒲, 王小亮, 李清, 王立新, 曹欢, 王姝, 张文, 潘勇, 王静波
, doi: 10.7541/2018.115
[摘要](119) [HTML全文](51) [PDF 554KB](9)
摘要:
为进一步确认及掌握鲤浮肿病毒(Carp Edema Virus, CEV)目前的流行现状和流行特点,于2017年重点调查了我国北方地区5省市26个正发生或曾经发生“鲤急性烂鳃病”的养殖场, 随机监测了9个省市的97家鲤和锦鲤养殖场。样品采用实时荧光定量PCR(Quantitative real time PCR,qPCR)法和套式PCR(Nest PCR)方法进行检测, nest PCR法扩增出的产物进行测序和基因分析。结果重点调查的26家养殖场中有20个为CEV阳性, 1个为锦鲤疱疹病毒(Koi Herpes Virus, KHV)阳性, 1个为孢子虫感染。随机调查的97家养殖场中有50家为CEV检测阳性, 阳性率高达52%; 可测序的CEV毒株均属于Genogroup Ⅱa型; 样品按不同地区、不同采样水温、不同品种、不同规格鱼等划分, 各组均有CEV阳性检出, 但检出率均无显著差异。以上结果表明CEV感染是多省市“鲤急性烂鳃病”暴发的主要病因。另外, 该病毒病的流行水温在12—27℃。
金沙江中下游圆口铜鱼的繁殖生物学
杨志, 龚云, 朱迪, 潘磊, 董纯, 刘宏高, 陈小娟, 唐会元
, doi: 10.7541/2018.124
[摘要](95) [HTML全文](39) [PDF 901KB](8)
摘要:
根据2013—2014在皎平渡圆口铜鱼产卵场的定点亲鱼收集(n=206)和2006—2014年在金沙江中下游金安桥至巧家干流江段的流动亲鱼采集(n=70), 对圆口铜鱼的繁殖生物学进行了初步研究。定点亲鱼收集的结果显示: 圆口铜鱼雌性最小性成熟个体全长330 mm, 体质量441.0 g, 年龄4龄; 雄性最小性成熟个体全长352 mm, 体质量396.6 g, 年龄3龄; 50%个体达到性成熟的年龄和全长分别为雌性4.32龄 406 mm, 雄性4.44龄 412 mm; 繁殖群体雌雄性比为1.37﹕1, 繁殖群体中雌性年龄为4—7龄, 雄性年龄为3—7龄; 雌雄个体的性成熟系数平均值均以6龄个体最高, 分别为10.55%和3.45%; 平均卵径为0.16 cm, 卵径分布呈双峰型。定点和流动亲鱼收集的雌性性成熟个体的结果表明: 圆口铜鱼绝对繁殖力变动范围为4055—137900粒/尾, 平均值为22817粒/尾; 相对繁殖力变动范围为5—73粒/g, 平均值为20粒/g, 75.68%个体的绝对繁殖力在10000—30000粒/尾之间, 70.27%个体的相对繁殖力在15—20粒/g之间; 绝对繁殖力和相对繁殖力均随着体长和体质量的增加而增加, 其中全长、体质量与绝对繁殖力呈指数分布函数正相关, 而与相对繁殖力呈二次项函数正相关。研究结果可为长江流域圆口铜鱼资源的保护提供重要的基础数据支撑。
温度对4种大型海藻氮磷吸收效率及光合生理特性的影响
刘棋琴, 羊芃, 马明婕, 周丽亚, 李亚鹤, 杨锐
, doi: 10.7541/2018.129
[摘要](62) [HTML全文](41) [PDF 972KB](5)
摘要:
研究以裂片石莼(Ulva fasciata)、肠浒苔(Ulva intestinalis)、龙须菜(Gracilaria lemaneaformis)、坛紫菜(Pyropia haitanensis)为实验材料, 分析了不同温度(15、20、25、30℃)下4种大型海藻对海水中N、P元素的吸收效率和光合特性的特点。结果显示: (1)4种大型海藻对水体N、P均有明显的吸收效果, 吸收能力高低依次为肠浒苔>裂片石莼>坛紫菜>龙须菜; (2)温度过高或过低都会限制藻类对N、P的吸收和正常生长, 同时降低4种藻的相对电子传递速率及光化学效率; (3)裂片石莼与肠浒苔的N、P吸收能力强, 且光合系统对温度耐受性高, 是实施养殖污水生物净化的良好材料; (4)4种海藻对水体中N、P营养盐的吸收在48h内基本完成, 实地应用中可考虑24—48h周期换水或采用流通循环式的培养模式, 以达到既促进藻类的生长又提高营养盐吸收效率的目的, 以避免藻体因营养缺乏引起负生长而造成二次污染。
厦门沿海的砂壳纤毛虫(原生动物, 纤毛门, 砂壳目)
廖昱宇, 刘昭远, 何如玥, 焦念志, 徐大鹏
, doi: 10.7541/2018.126
[摘要](72) [HTML全文](33) [PDF 847KB](4)
摘要:
对厦门沿海6个代表性站位砂壳纤毛虫进行了为期1年的采集, 共分离鉴定了27种砂壳纤毛虫, 其中拟铃虫属Tintinnopsis 20种, 薄铃虫属Leprotintinnus 3种, 类铃虫属Codonellopsis 2种, 领细壳虫属Stenosemella 1种以及网纹虫属Favella 1种。对该5属27种砂壳纤毛虫进行形态学描述, 并提供了显微照片, 其中侧胀拟铃虫Tintinnopsis ventricosoides Meunier, 1910为中国新记录种。
眼斑拟石首鱼虹彩病毒病的诊断
席云清, 戚瑞荣, 田佳鑫, 张会军, 雷燕, 唐绍林, 王桂芹
, doi: 10.7541/2018.114
[摘要](140) [HTML全文](97) [PDF 1013KB](8)
摘要:
对广东省珠海市每年6—10月池塘养殖的眼斑拟石首鱼(Sciaenop socellatus)暴发不明原因疾病进行了研究。通过对该病的流行病学调查,结合症状观察、病原分离鉴定、病理学变化,结果显示:该病具有明显的传染性,解剖病鱼可见鳃丝贫血、脾脏和肾脏肿大、出血,通过镜检未检测到大量的寄生虫;从发病鱼的肝、脾、肾脏和肠中未分离到致病菌;在病鱼肝、脾和肾组织病理切片中观察到有大量肿大细胞;通过使用OIE 推荐的虹彩病毒特异性引物进行PCR扩增出570 bp左右的目的片段,MCP基因序列比对显示扩增获得的基因序列与真鲷虹彩病毒(RSIV)的基因序列同源性高达99.2%。综合以上结果表明导致眼斑拟石首鱼发病死亡的原因是感染了细胞肿大属虹彩病毒而引起的虹彩病毒病。
海蜇胚胎发育和变态过程超微观察
刘春胜, 万逸, 高菲, 陈四清, 王爱民, 顾志峰
, doi: 10.7541/2018.125
[摘要](129) [HTML全文](83) [PDF 963KB](37)
摘要:
采用扫描电镜、透射电镜和蛋白银染色等方法研究了海蜇胚胎发育和变态过程中细胞超微结构变化。结果显示: (1)海蜇自受精卵至原肠期阶段细胞均等分裂, 细胞间存在大量连接, 细胞形态相近, 未出现显著分化; (2)海蜇自早期浮浪游虫阶段, 其外胚层细胞开始出现空泡化, 至4触手螅状体阶段外胚层细胞空泡体积逐渐增大, 而内胚层细胞仅在4触手螅状体阶段才出现空泡化。伴随着外胚层细胞空泡化比例的增大, 杯状体和4触手螅状体阶段出现疑似凋亡小体结构; (3)刺细胞分化于早期浮浪游虫期的外胚层近中胶层区域, 而后逐渐向外转移, 至4触手螅状体阶段发育成熟并转移至表面; (4)纤毛形成于早期浮浪幼虫, 在杯状体阶段逐渐退化, 并于4触手螅状体阶段完全消失; (5)在海蜇早期发育各个阶段, 其内部均发现大量着色较深的卵黄体, 且在浮浪游虫阶段首次发现了海蜇外层细胞主动吞噬细菌现象, 表明海蜇早期发育营养来自内源性和外源性两部分。研究结果可为阐明刺胞动物早期发育模式提供依据。
中国沿海新报道的三种产毒拟菱形藻
董焕嫦, 黄春秀, 李扬
, doi: 10.7541/2018.130
[摘要](153) [HTML全文](70) [PDF 740KB](11)
摘要:
为了明确我国海域拟菱形藻属(Pseudo-nitzschia)物种的产毒特征, 从中国沿海建立了15个拟菱形藻单克隆培养株系, 利用高效液相色谱-质谱联用法对其多莫酸特征进行检测, 在10个株系中检测到多莫酸。结合光学显微镜下的群体特征和透射电镜下的超微形态学特征, 以及基于核糖体转录间隔区的分子系统学数据, 确认上述10个产毒株系分别隶属于3个物种:尖细拟菱形藻P. cuspidata、伪柔弱拟菱形藻P. pseudodelicatissima、伪善拟菱形藻P. fraudulenta, 其中伪善拟菱形藻是我国的新记录种。建立尖细拟菱形藻的11个尖细拟菱形藻株系, 其中3个株系未检出多莫酸, 其余8个株系有检出, 单细胞产毒水平为0.4—5.5 fg。建立伪柔弱拟菱形藻株系2个, 1个未检出多莫酸, 另1个株系的单细胞产毒量为1 fg。建立伪善拟菱形藻株系2个, 纯种培养株系均未检出多莫酸。利用卤虫(Artemia salina)对部分藻株进行混培诱导, 其中尖细拟菱形藻(MC4049)和伪柔弱拟菱形藻(MC3015)的产毒水平略有下降, 单细胞产毒水平分别由2、1 fg降至0.2、0.4 fg, 而伪善拟菱形藻(MC4074)的产毒能力则有显著改变, 单细胞产毒水平由未检出上升至17.5 fg。研究丰富了我国产毒拟菱形藻的物种多样性, 明确了其物种信息和产毒水平, 可为后续深入研究提供基础数据。
捞刀河浏阳段河蚬的遗传多样性及生殖特征研究
王剑平, 李德亮, 曾聪, 朱鹏飞, 占江凡
, doi: 10.7541/2018.112
[摘要](206) [HTML全文](100) [PDF 698KB](24)
摘要:
研究以线粒体细胞色素氧化酶Ⅰ(COⅠ) 部分序列(614 bp)为分子标记, 对捞刀河浏阳段河蚬Corbicula fluminea (n=40)的种群遗传多样性进行评价, 并分别从性腺组织学和精子形态学两方面分析其生殖特征, 以期丰富河蚬的繁殖生物学信息, 为开展其人工繁殖及资源保护提供参考。结果显示, 40条河蚬COⅠ基因序列共检出4种单倍型, 17个变异位点, 平均单倍型多样性、平均核苷酸多样性和平均核苷酸差异数分别为 0.664±0.042、0.014±0.006和8.595。捞刀河浏阳段河蚬存在雌雄同体和雌雄异体2种性别系统, 雌雄同体、雄性和雌性的性比约为6﹕3﹕1。雌雄同体个体生殖滤泡存在滤泡混合型和滤泡并存型2种类型。23个雌雄同体和8个雄性个体的精子均为双鞭毛。结果表明, 捞刀河浏阳段河蚬种群的遗传多样性相对较低, 生殖方式多样且以雄核生殖为主。
发酵豆粕对大黄鱼生长、肠道结构及肠道微生物菌群的研究
何娇娇, 王萍, 冯建, 娄宇栋
, doi: 10.7541/2018.113
[摘要](235) [HTML全文](67) [PDF 1080KB](21)
摘要:
以鱼粉和小麦蛋白粉为蛋白源, 配制成6种等氮等脂(粗蛋白45%; 粗脂肪10%)的饲料, 研究其对大黄鱼(Larimichthys Crocea)幼鱼生长、肠道组织结构及肠道微生物菌群的影响。这6种饲料是以发酵豆粕分别替代基础饲料(含40%鱼粉)中0 (FSM0, 对照组)、15% (FSM15)、30% (FSM30)、45% (FSM45)、60% (FSM60)和75% (FSM75)的鱼粉制作而成。经过56d的生长实验, 结果表明, 饲料中随着发酵豆粕替代比例的升高, 各处理组大黄鱼幼鱼(10.49±0.03) g的存活率无显著性差异(P>0.05), 但FSM60和FSM75组有下降趋势; 相比FSM0组, FSM60和FSM75组的特定生长率(SGR)和增重率(WGR)显著降低(P<0.05), 饲料系数(FCR)显著升高(P<0.05); 摄食率(FI) FSM 60和FSM 75组显著高于FSM0、FSM15、FSM30和FSM45组(P<0.05)。肠道组织结构研究发现, 各处理组肠道组织结构后肠黏膜、皱襞高度、固有膜宽度和杯状细胞个数均无显著性差异(P>0.05)。Illumina-Mi Seq高通量测序技术分析发现, FSM0 (TC对照组)、FSM45 (TB最佳生长组)和FSM75 (TW最差生长组)组Chao1、香农指数(Shannon)、辛普森指数(Simpson)和覆盖率(Good coverage)均无显著性差异(P>0.05); 基于门水平, TC、TB和TW组大黄鱼幼鱼肠道优势菌群为厚壁菌门(Firmicutes); 而在属水平, 类芽孢杆菌(Paenibacillus)占绝对优势。从属水平差异菌属研究发现, 发酵豆粕对大黄鱼幼鱼肠道菌群有一定的影响: 与最差生长组(TW)相比, 最佳生长组(TB)和对照组(TC)均显著增加了类芽孢杆菌(Paenibacillus)和嗜碱菌属(Alkaliphilus)的物种丰度(P<0.05); 与TW组相比, TB组水栖菌属(Enhydrobacter)和TC组副球菌属(Paracoccus)的物种丰度均显著降低(P<0.05)。结果表明, 发酵豆粕替代鱼粉达45%时对大黄鱼幼鱼的生长、肠道组织结构及肠道优势菌群没有负面影响, 即发酵豆粕替代饲料(含40%鱼粉)中45%的鱼粉较为适宜。
华南鲤选育群体不同世代遗传多样性与遗传结构的微卫星分析
马冬梅, 苏换换, 朱华平, 黄樟翰
, doi: 10.7541/2018.109
[摘要](103) [HTML全文](37) [PDF 434KB](6)
摘要:
为了解人工选育对华南鲤(Cyprinus carpio rubrofuscus)选育群体遗传结构的影响, 采用微卫星技术分析了华南鲤4个连续选育世代(F1、F2、F3和F4)的遗传多样性和遗传结构。结果显示:在4个选育群体中, 16对微卫星引物共扩增得到99个等位基因, 每个微卫星座位检测到的等位基因数为3—10个, 平均为6.1875个。随着人工连续选育的进行, F1到F4的平均等位基因数(Na)从5.6875下降到4.6755, 平均观测杂合度(Ho)从0.7943下降到0.7135, 平均多态信息含量(PIC)从0.6577下降到0.5834。F1与其后各代的遗传距离逐代增加(从0.1486上升到0.2181), 遗传相似系数逐代减小(从0.8619下降到0.8041), 而相邻世代间的遗传分化指数(Fst)逐代变小(F1与F2为0.062, F2与F3为0.058, F3与F4则为0.051), 遗传相似性逐步升高。世代间Fst值配对比较结果显示4个世代间的遗传分化处于中等水平, 表明人工选育已对华南鲤选育群体的遗传结构产生了影响。实验结果表明, 华南鲤经过4代选育后, 虽然遗传杂合度和遗传多样性存在下降的现象, 但遗传多样性水平依然较高, 还具有进一步选育的潜力。研究结果为下一步制定华南鲤新品种选育计划提供基础遗传数据。
异亮氨酸对鳜mTOR信号通路及氮代谢影响
黄康, 梁旭方, 何珊, 李姣, 汤树林, 张真
, doi: 10.7541/2018.108
[摘要](138) [HTML全文](88) [PDF 654KB](8)
摘要:
通过脑室注射异亮氨酸, 探究短期内异亮氨酸对鳜(Siniperca chuatsi)雷帕霉素靶蛋白(Mammalian target of rapamycin, mTOR)信号通路及氮代谢影响。结果显示: 脑室注射异亮氨酸后, (1)促进鳜氨氮排泄; (2)谷氨酸脱氢酶基因(Glutamate dehydrogenase, GDH)、谷草转氨酶基因(Glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, GOT)和腺苷酸脱氨酶基因(Adenosine monophosphate deaminase, AMPD)氮代谢基因相对表达量显著性上调(P<0.05); (3)鳜血糖含量在0.5h显著性降低(P<0.05); (4)激活了鳜肝脏mTOR信号通路, 促使下游分子核糖体蛋白S6磷酸化(P<0.05)。结果表明: 异亮氨酸能够激活鳜肝脏mTOR信号通路, 介导氨基酸代谢, 提高鳜氮代谢基因的转录水平, 促使氨氮排泄增多。
辐照提高人工湿地美人蕉抗寒性及其越冬效果研究
郑文萍, 童伟军, 马琳, 张义, 吴振斌, 贺锋
[摘要](30) [HTML全文](17) [PDF 706KB](1)
摘要:
植物是人工湿地的重要组成部分, 但大多数湿地植物在低温环境下不能生存, 微生物活性受到抑制, 导致人工湿地低温应用受到限制。研究将辐照育种的手段应用于湿地植物, 以提高其抗寒性。研究采用25 Gy、45 Gy、60 Gy和80 Gy的γ射线对美人蕉(Canna indica L.)种子进行辐照, 剂量率为6 Gy/min, 待幼苗长出后进行阶段性降温培养, 并评价各组抗寒性。结果表明: 在低温下, 辐照幼苗的超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化物酶(POD)和过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性均高于对照组。对照组丙二醛(MDA)在低温下大量积累, 且含量显著高于辐照组。在低温条件下, 幼苗脯氨酸、可溶性糖、蛋白质含量高于对照组。辐照组抗寒性得分高于对照组, 45 Gy组得分最高。随后将最佳辐照处理的美人蕉种植于人工湿地, 对其冬季净化效果进行评估, 评价指标包括: 总磷(TP)、总氮(TN)、化学需氧量(COD)。结果发现, 45 Gy辐照组人工湿地的冬季TP去除率显著高于对照组(P<0.05)。由此可见, 辐照处理能够有效提高美人蕉的抗寒性, 并提高人工湿地冬季净化效果。
长江口水生动物食物网营养结构及其变化
徐超, 王思凯, 赵峰, 杨刚, 庄平
[摘要](48) [HTML全文](25) [PDF 685KB](4)
摘要:
为研究长江口水生动物食物网营养结构及其变化, 运用胃含物分析法研究了2016—2017年长江口及其邻近水域捕获的43种水生动物的食性类型与营养结构, 并与20世纪90年代和2006年文献数据进行了比较, 结果表明, 长江口及其邻近水域捕获的水生动物分为4种食性类型: 浮游生物食性、底栖生物食性、游泳生物食性、混合食性, 其中浮游生物食性消费者占绝对优势, 为39.53%; 游泳生物食性消费者所占比例最少, 为11.63%。所分析样品的营养级可分为3级, 其中植食性消费者占优势, 为76.75%; 中级肉食性消费者所占比例最少, 为4.65%; 与20世纪90年代相比, 12种常见鱼类的平均营养级由3.80下降到2.87。长江口水生动物食物网结构较为复杂, 生产者类型包括底栖藻类、浮游植物、有机碎屑3种, 主要由牧食食物链和碎屑食物链构成复杂的食物网。
力竭追赶训练对两种鲤科鱼类呼吸循环系统参数和力竭运动后代谢特征的影响
李秀明, 张耀光, 何春梅, 郭海燕, 付世建
[摘要](25) [HTML全文](15) [PDF 533KB](3)
摘要:
为了考察力竭追赶训练对中华倒刺鲃(Spinibarbus sinensis)和岩原鲤(Procypris rabaudi)幼鱼呼吸循环系统和力竭运动后代谢特征的影响, 在(25±0.5)℃条件下, 将2种实验鱼各60尾 [体重分别为(28.36±0.08)g和(19.53±0.13)g]随机等分成对照组和训练组, 训练组进行1次/d共21d的力竭追赶训练。随后测定各组实验鱼的心脏和鳃指数、血液指标以及力竭运动后过量耗氧(Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption, EPOC)。结果发现: 2种鱼心脏指数、鳃指数、血红蛋白含量和红细胞数目在各自对照组和训练组之间都没有显著性差异; 岩原鲤对照组的鳃指数显著低于中华倒刺鲃对照组(P<0.05), 但心脏指数、血红蛋白含量和红细胞数目与中华倒刺鲃对照组无显著性差异。中华倒刺鲃训练组的运动前代谢率、运动代谢峰值、峰值比率、代谢恢复速率与其对照组没有显著差异, 但运动后恢复时间和过量耗氧显著大于对照组(P<0.05); 岩原鲤训练组的运动前代谢率显著低于其对照组(P<0.05), 但运动代谢峰值、峰值比率、运动后恢复时间、过量耗氧、代谢恢复速率与其对照组没有显著性差异。岩原鲤对照组的运动前代谢率、运动代谢峰值、过量耗氧和代谢恢复速率分别显著低于中华倒刺鲃对照组(P<0.05), 但峰值比率和运动后恢复时间与中华倒刺鲃对照组无显著性差异。研究表明: (1)力竭追赶训练对中华倒刺鲃和岩原鲤幼鱼的呼吸和循环系统参数没有产生显著性影响; (2)力竭追赶训练显著提高了中华倒刺鲃幼鱼的无氧代谢能力; (3)中华倒刺鲃幼鱼力竭运动前后代谢率显著高于岩原鲤幼鱼, 这可能与其较为活跃的习性有关。
中华鳖Foxl2基因克隆及外源性激素对其表达的影响
高丽丽, 刁晓明, 李云, 翟旭亮, 周春龙
[摘要](62) [HTML全文](22) [PDF 648KB](4)
摘要:
外源性激素在中华鳖(Pelodiscus sinensis)性别决定有重要作用, 为给中华鳖性别决定机制研究提供生物学信息, 首次克隆和分析了中华鳖Foxl2 cDNA部分序列。为研究其在遗传和生理水平的差异, 以10 mg/kg剂量17α-甲基睾酮(MT)和17β-雌二醇(E2)分别对中华鳖雌雄个体注射, 检测0、6h、12h、24h、48h、7d和14d性腺Foxl2 mRNA表达水平。获得中华鳖Foxl2基因(GenBank登录号: KP734210)部分 cDNA长903 bp, 共编码300个氨基酸, 属于叉头框转录因子家族, 参与卵巢发育和功能维持; 多重序列比对显示, Foxl2具有典型的FH结构域, 与红耳龟的同源性最高, 达到99%; 系统进化树分析显示, 中华鳖Foxl2基因与爬行动物Foxl2基因聚为一个亚支, 且与西部锦龟Foxl2基因距离最近。荧光定量PCR结果显示, 与对照组相比, 注射E2后24h, 卵巢Foxl2 mRNA表达水平被极显著上调(P<0.001), 7d和14d后, 精巢Foxl2 mRNA表达水平极显著上升(P<0.001); 注射MT后24h, 精巢和卵巢Foxl2 mRNA的表达水平均极显著升高(P<0.001)。结果表明, E2和MT促进Foxl2表达, E2促进其表达的性别差异比MT明显。研究可为了解Foxl2的功能及明确外源性激素调控中华鳖Foxl2的分子机制提供基础资料。
EFFECTS OF AQUACULTURE ON PHYTOPLANKTON COMMUNITIES OF LAKES IN THE MIDDLE REACH OF THE YANGTZE RIVER BASIN
Ying-Xue ZHANG, Rui WANG, Xiao QU, Wen-Tong XIA, Wei XIN, Chuan-Bo GUO, Yu-Shun CHEN
[摘要](106) [HTML全文](40) [PDF 476KB](1)
摘要:
There is limited information available on effects of aquaculture on lake ecosystems. Community structure and biodiversity of phytoplankton were investigated from July to September, 2015 in 23 lakes in the middle reach of the Yangtze River Basin, which include four groups: reservoir group (A), aquaculture ban group (B), low stocking aquaculture group (C) and high stocking aquaculture group (D). The analysis showed that dominant genera of the four groups were different. Group A was dominated by Pseudanabaena (Y=0.642) and Planktolyngbya (Y=0.064). Group B was dominated by Merismopedia (Y=0.428), Planktolyngbya (Y=0.118), Pseudanabaena (Y=0.133), and Scenedesmus (Y=0.066). Group C was dominated by Pseudanabaena (Y=0.395), Merismopedia (Y=0.097), and Planktolyngbya (Y=0.122). Group D was dominated by Merismopedia (Y=0.308), Microcystis (Y=0.118), and Pseudanabaena (Y=0.077). The phytoplankton abundance in group A was significantly lower than those in other lake groups (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in Shannon-Wiener index, Margalef index and Pielou index of phytoplankton among the four lake groups. The study indicated that fish culture could affect the abundance and dominant genera of phytoplankton, which may provide some implications for lake ecosystem management.
HISTOLOGICAL STUDIES ON GONADAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE ENDEMIC TIBETAN FISH PTYCHOBARBUS DIPOGON
Ben-He ZENG, Cang-Wei RAO, Hai-Ping LIU
[摘要](55) [HTML全文](32) [PDF 525KB](4)
摘要:
The histology of gonadal development in Ptychobarbus dipogon was studied by using conventional paraffin sections and HE staining, in order to obtain information on its reproductive systems useful for its artificial breeding. The results showed that the development of oocytes can be divided into five phases, and ovarian development can be divided into six stages. In stage V ovaries, ovum worship was found to occur, indicated by the 1.38:1 ratio of small ova to large ova. Phase 3 oocytes were characterized by appearance of yolk granules and follicles; phase 4 oocytes by rapid increase of yolk granules, and the movement of the nucleus toward the animal poles; phase 5 by the fusion of yolk granules, and the separation of oocytes from follicular membranes to float in the ovarian cavity. Male P. dipogen had lobular testes, and their germ cells can be categorized into spermatogonia, spermatocytes; spermatids; and spermatozoa. Their testes also developed in six stages. The species followed a batch-synchronous spawning pattern.
COMPARISONS OF SELECTIVITY BY FOUR FISHING METHODS ON FISH COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT IN A SHALLOW YANGTZE LAKE, AND IMPLICATIONS FOR FISHERY MANAGEMENT
Shao-Wen YE, Wen-Tao ZENG, Yu-Shun CHEN, Tang-Lin ZHANG, Jia-Shou LIU, Zhong-Jie LI
[摘要](54) [HTML全文](25) [PDF 523KB](1)
摘要:
Knowledge of the vulnerability of different species and size groups to various types of fishing methods is vital to the development of optimal harvesting strategies and rational exploitation of fish resources. In this study, the selectivity of four types of fishing methods (weir nets, gill nets, electrofishing, and cormorants) used simultaneously in a typical multi-species shallow lake (Lake Niushan, China) within the Yangtze River basin, was compared for catch composition, efficiency, and size selection. Species selectivity was evaluated with the index of relative importance (IRI). Potential fishing effects on the trophic structure of fish community were analyzed by calculating the mean trophic level (MTL) of the catches and the weight ratio between prey and predator fishes. Results indicated the use of weir nets and electrofishing should be reduced or eliminated, because they were relatively unselective and caught many species, including juvenile individuals. Fishing efforts of cormorants should be restricted due to their high fishing efficiency, especially on piscivorous fishes. Gill nets with appropriate mesh size are likely to be a more sustainable fishing method since they were more selective in capturing larger individuals and could balance the prey-predator relationship. We suggest shifting from single-species approaches toward multi-species management, and taking trophic interactions into account to better manage fishery resources.
DEVELOPMENT OF FIFTEEN EST-SSR MARKERS IN YELLOW PERCH PERCA FLAVESCENS BY DATA MINING FROM PUBLIC EST SEQUENCES
Dan WANG, Hong YAO, Wei-Min WANG, Gui-Wei ZOU, Han-Ping WANG
[摘要](47) [HTML全文](20) [PDF 471KB](1)
摘要:
The yellow perch, Perca flavescens, is an economically significant freshwater fish species in the Midwest of the United States. TypeⅠ markers are useful for comparative mapping and other genetic analyses, but limited quantities in yellow perch. In the present study, EST containing microsatellite sequences were identified and characterized for yellow perch by data mining from updated public EST databases. Out of 21,968 EST sequences of yellow perch, about 14.4% of ESTs contain repeat motifs of various types and length. CA repeat was the most abundant dinucleotides. Out of the 62 EST-SSRs for which PCR primers were designed, 15 loci showed polymorphic in a yellow perch population with the alleles per locus ranging from 4 to 19 (average 9). The observed (HO) and expected (HE) heterozygosity of these EST-SSRs were 0.103—0.929 and 0.116—0.934, respectively. Four EST-SSR loci significantly deviated from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) expectation, and the remaining 11 loci were in HWE. These new EST-SSR markers should provide sufficient polymorphism for population genetic studies and genomic mapping of yellow perch.
ASSESSING FISH ASSEMBLAGES IN A SHALLOW YANGTZE RIVER LAKE USING MULTI-MESH GILLNETS AND DENSE-MESH WEIRS
Chuan-Bo GUO, Rui WANG, Xiao QU, Wei XIN, Yu-Shun CHEN, Zhong-Jie LI
[摘要](52) [HTML全文](23) [PDF 459KB](0)
摘要:
To assess possible bias of different fishing methods is essential to appropriate fisheries management. In the current study, fish assemblage structure of a shallow Yangtze River lake was assessed by combining one international standard sampling gear (multi-mesh gillnet), and one traditional Chinese gear (the dense-mesh weir). Using Lake Biandantang as a case study, a total of 27 fish species were collected from the two gears combined, including 2 new species that had not been recorded previously in this lake. Results suggested that fish assemblages had changed greatly compared to a previous study conducted in the 1990s. Specifically, differences were found in species composition, abundance, biomass, and length distributions collected from the two gears. Difference in total length (TL) distributions of fishes caught was the most conspicuous change. Fishes collected from the weir ranged from 40—70 mm TL, whereas fishes collected from gillnets ranged from 90—140 mm TL. Multivariate ordinations based on relative abundance and biomass data also indicated fish assemblage structural differences between the two gears. The comparative results showed that the multi-mesh gillnet was effective at assessing fish assemblages in shallow lakes, such as those found along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. Additionally, assessments using only one gear could have some limitations with respect to interpreting fish assemblage changes over time.
ASIAN CARP EXPANSION IN THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER: FOCUSING ON THE LEADING EDGE OF THE INVASION FRONT
Tripp SARA, Phelps QUINTON
[摘要](42) [HTML全文](22) [PDF 332KB](1)
摘要:
Asian carp are expanding their range throughout the Mississippi River; however, abundance is thought to be highest in reaches within close proximity to the Illinois River. In the Mississippi River, Lock and Dam 19 (L&D 19) at Keokuk, Iowa is the primary barrier to slow the expansion upstream. As Asian carp abundance increases below L&D 19, it is important to investigate potential means of control (i.e., reduction through harvest and barriers) that will prevent complete invasion of the Mississippi River above L&D 19. Silver Carp and Bighead Carp were collected below L&D 19, a subsample were implanted with ultrasonic transmitters to evaluate passage through the lock chamber and the remainder were used to determine population dynamics at the leading edge of invasion. Although the dam portion of the structure poses a complete barrier to upstream expansion, we documented lock chamber passage demonstrating the lock chamber has the capability to provide passage upstream. Based on the results of the population assessment, in order to induce recruitment overfishing at this leading edge of invasion, Asian carp will need to be intensively harvested at 300 mm and larger. The combination of commercial fishing efforts and research investigating ways to prevent passage upstream must be employed.
SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION CHARACTERISTICS OF ROTIFER RESTING EGGS IN SUB-LAKES OF THE POYANG LAKE WETLAND AREA DURING THE DRY SEASON
Hai-Ming QIN, Jun-Wei YAN, Xue NIE, Wen-Juan WANG, Xiao-Yuan SHEN
[摘要](49) [HTML全文](22) [PDF 587KB](1)
摘要:
Our study examined spatial distribution differences of rotifer resting eggs (RRE) in lakes of the Poyang Lake Wetland Area during dry season, January 2015. Field sampling was conducted in both Nanshen Lake and Baisha Lake. We found that densities of RRE in different habitats were significantly different (P<0.05), and their distribution had an obvious gradient. The highest mean density was in the marshland vegetation area of Nanshen Lake, where it was (3.34±1.28) ind./cm3. The density of resting eggs in the Zizania latifolia area was up to 5.45 ind./cm3. The density of RRE was different spatially, with the greatest in the vegetation area, then in the muddy area, and then the lowest in the water area. ANOVAs results showed that water depth, vegetation, and sediment had significant effects on RRE (P=0.001, 0.007, <0.001, respectively). The trend of resting egg densities in different aquatic habitats was: emergent aquatic plant > marshland vegetation > floating-leaf plants > submerged plants. The distribution of RRE in areas of different water depths was inconsistent. The density of RRE was higher in the hard than soft sediment.
SEXUAL DIMORPHISM IN SEXUALLY MATURE GLYPTOSTERNUM MACULATUM IN TIBET AUTONOMOUS REGION, CHINA
Ying-zi Pan, Hai-ping Liu, Jian-she Zhou, Mei-qun Chen
[摘要](56) [HTML全文](27) [PDF 498KB](3)
摘要:
Sexual dimorphism refers to the morphological differentiation between males and females in the same population, such as sizes, morphological features, and colors. Cold water fish Glyptosternum maculatum, is an endemic teleost species of notable economic importance and with high potential for controlled rearing of the species in Tibet Autonomous Region. In this study, morphological measurements and related analysis were conducted on sexually mature G. maculatum to investigate their morphological differences in Tibet Autonomous Region. Results indicated the sexually mature populations indeed display really displayed significant sexual dimorphism: males exhibited significantly greater body length, weight, and males also exhibited in addition to greater tail length while females exhibited significantly greater eye diameter, body depth, trunk length, and lengths of dorsal, pectoral, pelvic, anal, and caudal fins at a given body length. Principal components analysis on 16 morphological parameters showed that the differences were largely due to features of the body shape (including lengths of body parts and fins) and the head, and differences in the above features differences contributed 76.7%. The t-statistic test on the allometry index b in the total length-weight function showed that during the breeding season, the total lengths and weights of G. maculatum females developed proportionally, while the male specimens were allometrical.
A RAPID ASSESSMENT APPROACH FOR EVALUATING SILVER CARP GENDER
Michael C Wolf, Quinton E Phelps, Justin R Seibert, Sara J. Tripp
[摘要](47) [HTML全文](22) [PDF 183KB](2)
摘要:
Silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix were introduced into the U.S. to control water quality in aquaculture ponds. From this point of origin, silver carp escaped into nearby rivers through multiple flood events. Because of their documented negative effects on native biota, silver carp have been labeled as problematic. Therefore, evaluating the biology and ecology of these non-indigenous species is critical. Multiple parameters are needed to evaluate silver carp populations (length, weight, age, and sex). Furthermore, developing methods for rapidly acquiring these data are needed. In relation to sex determination, sexual dimorphism was observed where males exhibit distinct pectoral fin ray features. Specifically, males have pronounced ridges or a " rough patch” on the dorsal surface of pectoral fins. Therefore, to test if this was an applicable way of determining silver carp gender; silver carp were collected from Midwestern U.S. rivers (N=2,015) in the fall of 2011 (N=870), spring of 2012 (N=645), winter of 2013-2014 (N=202) and summer 2015 (N=323) via electrofishing. For each silver carp collected, presence (e.g., rough patch) or absence (e.g., smooth) of pronounced ridges on the top side of the pectoral fins was recorded, and an incision was made in the body cavity to identify gender. Based on the results of our evaluation, gender was correctly identified over 99% of the time (2,006 out of 2,015) based on the pectoral fin dimorphism. In the samples taken in the winter of 2013—2014 and summer of 2015, accuracy for silver carp shorter than 300 mm and longer than 800mm was 53.7% (19 out of 41) while accuracy for silver carp between 300 mm and 800mm total length was 98.9% (289 out of 292). This study provides a rapid assessment approach for evaluating silver carp gender.
EFFECTS OF RELEASE SIZE ON SURVIVAL, GROWTH AND YIELD OF HATCHERY-REARED MANDARIN FISH STOCKED IN A SHALLOW YANGTZE LAKE
Wei LI, Xing-Wei CAI, Chuan-BO GUO, Tang-Lin ZHANG, Jia-Shou LIU, Zhong-Jie LI
[摘要](62) [HTML全文](24) [PDF 314KB](2)
摘要:
A tag-release-recapture study was conducted to evaluate effects of size at release on survival, growth and yield of hatchery-reared mandarin fish Siniperca chautsi fingerlings stocked in a shallow Yangtze lake. In May and June 2012, a total of 2,400 juvenile mandarin fish were graded into three size groups, identified with coded wire tags and tail fin, and released into Xiaosai Lake. Mandarin fish were collected after the lake drained in December 2012. Overall, a total of 973 mandarin fish individuals were captured, with an average survival rate of 40.5%. Survival rate of large sized group (63%) is more than three times higher than that of small sized group (19.5%) and 1.5 times higher than that of middle sized group (39.1%). The mean final length and weight of mandarin fish increased with the increase of release size and showed significant difference among groups. Yield was significantly affected by release size, which was the highest in large sized group and the lowest in small sized group. The net income of stocked mandarin fish increased with the increase of fish size at release. Our results indicated that mandarin fish size at release can have a major impact on success of hatchery releases, and it is suggested that the optimum release size of mandarin fish should not be less than 50 mm in Xiaosai Lake.
SPATIAL PATTERN OF FISH ASSEMBLAGES ALONG THE RIVER-RESERVOIR GRADIENT CAUSED BY THE THREE GORGE RESERVOIR (TGR)
Peng-Cheng LIN, Fei LIU, Ming-Zheng LI, Xin GAO, Huan-Zhang LIU
[摘要](53) [HTML全文](26) [PDF 578KB](4)
摘要:
We analysed spatial pattern in the fish assemblage structure along a longitudinal gradient of the Upper Yangtze River and the Three Gorges Reservoir. We tested the hypothesis that shifts from lotic to lentic environment affect the richness and structure of the fish assemblage. Samplings were carried out from 2005 to 2012 in four zones: 1) Hejiang reach, river upstream from the reservoir; 2) Mudong reach, upper part of the reservoir; 3) Wanzhou reach, middle part of the reservoir, and 4) Zigui reach, lower part of the reservoir. A total of 368706 fish representing 132 native species of 17 families were collected during the study period with Cyprinidae as the dominant group. The results showed that the native species richness decreased while the non-native species increased from river (Hejiang reach) to reservoir (Zigui reach). Patterns in fish assemblage ordination evaluated by correspondence analysis reflected a clear division of the riverine and reservoir zones. Uppermost sampling stations were characterized by species characteristic of flowing waters, whereas in the lowland most lentic species were captured. Further, 22 species, three functional groups (rheophilic, equilibrium, insectivorous) were identified for the upper reach and 16 species, three functional groups (herbivorous, planktivorous, stagnophilic) for the lowland reach by indicator species analysis (P<0.05). Therefore, it is evident that impoundment of the Three Gorges Reservoir is the major driving factor to structuring the fish assemblage structure along the longitudinal gradient from river to the reservoir. Different fisheries management actions should be made to conserve or rehabilitate native fish assemblages and control invasive non-native species.
AGE-0 SILVER CARP AND GIZZARD SHAD DAILY GROWTH AND HATCH TIMING IN THE MIDDLE MISSISSIPPI RIVER
Michael C. Wolf, Kevin Haupt, Quinton E. Phelps
[摘要](46) [HTML全文](25) [PDF 301KB](1)
摘要:
The establishment of a highly efficient planktivore, Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), in the Mississippi River Basin has been documented as having negative impacts on native planktivore populations. Silver Carp have the potential, to alter the trophic food web through negative interactions with native planktivores in large river systems. Due to increasing Silver Carp ranges, interactions between Silver Carp and other native planktivores is likely to increase. One abundant native planktivore that is often found in similar habitats as Silver Carp is Gizzard Shad (Dorosoma cepedianum). Potential competition for resources exists because of overlapping habitat use and forage. Given the similarities between these two planktivores, we sought to evaluate daily growth rates and determine hatch dates of age-0 Silver Carp and Gizzard Shad in the Middle Mississippi River. Silver Carp and Gizzard Shad were collected from the Middle Mississippi River using an electrified surface trawl from June through September with sizes ranging from 21—65 mm total length for Gizzard Shad and 24—85 mm total length for Silver Carp. A sample of age-0 fish (n=697) was collected at the end of the growing season including 292 Gizzard Shad and 405 Silver Carp. Size structure (total length in mm) of Silver Carp (49.05±0.41; X ̅ ± SE) was significantly greater (T=-16.43, df=695, P<0.001) than Gizzard Shad (38.95 ± 0.45). Hatch dates were similar between Silver Carp (July 26th to August 18th) and Gizzard Shad (July 28th to August 19th). Growth of Silver Carp (2.24 mm per day) was significantly greater (P<0.001, T=-11.1, df=82) than Gizzard Shad (1.72 mm per day). Mortality was similar between Silver Carp (28.1%) and Gizzard Shad (25.1%) at this early life stage. The faster growth rates in Silver Carp result in Silver Carp entering the winter season larger in size with likely an increased capacity to consume plankton and decreased predation ultimately leading to higher recruitment. Knowing that there exists an overlap between Silver Carp and Gizzard Shad diets and habitat could alone call cause for concern. Adding that spawning occurs at a similar time and Silver Carp have the ability to outgrow Gizzard Shad early in life leads to major concerns about food web balance. Knowing that invasive planktivores have already shown to alter food webs in aquatic systems in North America, extra caution should be taken.
MAPPING SPATIOTEMPORAL TRENDS IN THE ABUNDANCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF MACROPHYTES IN HONGZE LAKE
Chuan-Bo GUO, Wei LI, Ying-Xue ZHANG, Wen-Tong XIA, Wei XIN, Yu-Shun CHEN, Zhong-Jie LI
[摘要](49) [HTML全文](17) [PDF 958KB](1)
摘要:
A comprehensive investigation on macrophyte community in Hongze Lake was conducted seasonally from May 2010 to February 2011. Overall, twelve species representing eight families of macrophytes were identified in Hongze Lake, including nine species of submerged plants, two species of floating-leaved plants, and one species of emerging plant. In general, Potamogeton malaianus, P. maackianu, P. pectinatus and P. crispus were the four dominant species throughout the whole year, the highest biomass of macrophytes was presented in autumn, followed by summer and winter, while spring had the lowest biomass of macrophytes. Based on field data, we used kriging interpolation in ArcGis to map the spatiotemporal distribution of the entire macrophyte community as well as each of the four dominant species. From the GIS maps we observed that the northern area of the lake, namely the Chengzihu region, had the highest biomass of macrophytes potentially as a result of better water quality and greater transparency. Potential factors that affected the community structure, biomass, and distribution patterns of macrophytes considerably were then discussed. The results of this study illuminate the need for more information on the role and importance of aquatic macrophytes in shallow lake ecosystems. Conservation of macrophytes should be taken to maintain the lake ecosystem health.
TEXTURE ANALYSES OF TWO SCHIZOTHORACINAE FISHES IN TIBET AUTONOMOUS REGION, CHINA
Mei-Qun CHEN, Meng TAN, Hai-Ping LIU
[摘要](48) [HTML全文](24) [PDF 359KB](2)
摘要:
Schizothorax macropogon and Ptychobarbus dipogon are important economic fishes in the Yarlung Zangbo River. Both are Schizothoracinaes containing a variety of essential fatty acids with high nutritional values. As food products, the textural characteristics of their meat determine important factors like taste or methods of treatment. To explore the preservation and utilization of fish resources in the Tibet Autonomous Region, China, the texture profile analysis (TPA) method was used to analyze 12 textural parameters. Fish were captured from the Yarlung Zangbo River in Shigatse and Nyingchi City. Principal component analysis showed that the texture of P. dipogon captured from the Nyingchi segment was different from the same species captured in the Shigatse segment, and different from S. macropogon captured from both segments. Factorial analysis indicated that the textural characteristics of Schizothoracinae fishes in Tibet Autonomous Region can be summarized as hardness indices, overcome attraction indices and contractility indices, of which the accumulated variance contribution rate of the first four principal component factors was 81.472%. The three categories of the four principal component axes could be the main deciding parameters of the textural characteristics of Schizothoracinae fishes in Tibet Autonomous Region. This provides scientific data for subsequent development and utilization of Schizothoracinae fishes from the Yarlung Zangbo River in different geographical areas.
EFFECTS OF ARTIFICIAL SUBSTRATES ON THE CARP GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND WATER QUALITY IN PONDS EQUIPPED BY USING A POLY-CULTURE SYSTEM
Ji Shu ZHOU, Qing An LIAN, Er Meng YU, Jun XIE, Hong JI, Hai Bo YU
[摘要](132) [HTML全文](82) [PDF 599KB](10)
摘要:
To investigate the influence of artificial substrates (AS) on the growth performance of fish in pond poly-culture systems, a feeding experiment was conducted in six individual earthen ponds, which were divided into two groups. The ponds with AS in the water were labeled as the " AS group” and that without the use of AS were labeled as the " control group” (three ponds per group). A total of 3867 common carp [Cyprinus carpio, (310±11) g], being artificial-feeds feeding fish, and 370 bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) and silver carp [Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, (810±15) g], being plankton filter feeding fish, were divided into six groups and cultured in the ponds respectively. The common carp in each pond were fed with commercial particle feeds three times a day and the feeding period was 62 days. Water quality, concentration of plankton and the bacterial community presenting in the water and sediment were monitored during the experiment. At the end of the experiment, all fish were harvested and the growth of the fish and feed efficiency ratio were determined. Results showed that the weight gain rate and feed efficiency ratio of common carp in AS group was significantly higher than that of the control group. Final body weights of bighead carp and silver carp in the AS group were significantly lower than that of the controls. Water transparency and diversity indices of the bacterial community in the AS group were significantly higher than that of the control (P<0.05) and the concentration of plankton in the AS group was lower than that of the control. Results showed that the application of AS in poly-culture ponds was beneficial for the growth of common carp, being artificial-feeds feeding fish, while it was not beneficial for the growth of bighead carp and silver carp, being plankton filter feeding fish.
A REVIEW OF INTERNATIONAL FISHWAYS ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS AND MANAGEMENT PROSPECTS FOR CHINA
Wei-Wei LI, Jiang-Hui BAO, Chao-Shuo ZHANG, Li-Wei WANG, Ye QIAO, Jing-Ya WEN, Hong-Tao LI, Tang-Lin ZHANG, Jia-Shou LIU, Zhong-Jie LI, Ming DUAN
[摘要](222) [HTML全文](86) [PDF 434KB](15)
摘要:
Many efforts have been devoted to developing, constructing and refining fishways or fish passage facilities to facilitate the target fish species to pass barriers in fluvial systems. Once dominated by an engineering-focused approach, fishways science nowadays involves a wide range of disciplines from fish behaviour to socioeconomics, and to complex modeling of passage prioritization options in river networks. Designing efficient fishways, with minimal passage delay and post-passage impacts, requires adaptive management and continued innovations. After the completion of fishways construction, corresponding management systems usually need to be improved as well. In the current study, we first reviewed international fishways adaptive management systems (e.g., aspects of development, construction, and management) from 1991 to 2017 reporting on " fishway”, " fish passage”, " fish” and " dam”. The functions of fishways gradually transferred from conservation of economic stocks to overall biodiversity conservation, from facilitating upwards to both upwards and downwards passages, from developing a single project to considering the entire river basin, from fish passing function to habitats restorations as well, and from pure engineering construction to considering adaptive management. Finally, we discussed adaptive management systems and management prospects of fishways for China.
ANESTHETIC EFFECTS OF MS-222 ON SCHIZOTHORAX O’CONNORI LLORD IN TWO SIZE RANGES
Yan-Chao LIU, Hai-Ping LIU, Shu-Yun LIU, Xi-Feng LI, Xiao-Guang SONG
[摘要](171) [HTML全文](100) [PDF 649KB](14)
摘要:
This study examined anesthetic behaviors of Schizothorax o’connori Llord in two size ranges as induced by MS-222, to acquire useful information on anesthesia of said highland fish species in out-of-water activities (surgery, labeling, measurement, etc.). Test results indicated that for both large (25.0±1.5) cm and small-sized (14.8±2.3) cm specimens, respiration rates showed no significant change in anesthetic stages I to III, and only begun to significantly decline after entering stage IV. The effective concentrations of MS-222 were 150—180 mg/L and 150 mg/L for two sizes, respectively. The 150—180 mg/L caused large specimens to enter anesthetic stage IV within 5min, and recovered within 5min; the 150 mg/L caused small specimens to enter stage IV within 5min, and recovered within 7min; both doses ensured a 100% survival rate after immersion for 20min. For large specimens anesthetized at 180 mg/L for 5min and exposed to air for 0—15min, there was no significant difference in recovery times (P>0.05); for small specimens anesthetized at 150 mg/L for 5min and exposed to air for 0—15min, there were significant differences in recovery (P<0.05).
FISH ASSEMBLAGE RESPONSES TO DIFFERENT SECONDARY CHANNEL DESIGNS IN THE LOWER MISSISSIPPI RIVER, U.S.A.: A TEMPLATE FOR RIVER RESTORATION
Joseph E. KAISER, Shannon C.F. SMITH, Jr. Harold L. SCHRAMM, Michael A. EGGLETON
[摘要](176) [HTML全文](83) [PDF 568KB](11)
摘要:
The lower Mississippi River (LMR) has been heavily modified for multiple human purposes such as navigation, flood control, and bank stabilization. However, the LMR simultaneously supports a diverse fish fauna that includes recreational and commercial fisheries. Due to river training and diversion structures constructed during the past 80 years, the historic characteristics of the LMR have been drastically altered and have likely influenced fishes and fisheries in the system. One common restoration measure used throughout the LMR has been to " notch” wing-dike structures that close secondary (side) river channels. Dike notching allows year-round flows through secondary channels, which enhances habitat diversity and promotes biological productivity at the ecosystem scale. Although notching is presumed good for LMR fishes and other biota, few studies have examined its effects on fish assemblages. In this study, fish assemblages were sampled at seven LMR secondary channels spanning from river kilometer (rkm) 628 (Louisiana-Mississippi, U.S.A.) upstream to rkm 1504 (Missouri-Kentucky, U.S.A.). Four secondary channels were termed " permanent” (i.e., with notched dikes) while three secondary channels were termed " temporary” (i.e., without notched dikes). Fishes were sampled by boat-mounted electrofishing conducted during falling and low stages from 1995—1997. Fish assemblages differed between permanent and temporary secondary channels, and varied somewhat between falling and low stages. Gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum), threadfin shad (D. petenense), and white bass (Morone chrysops) demonstrated consistent preferences for low-current conditions associated with temporary secondary channels. Conversely, blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus), flathead catfish (Pylodictis olivaris), and freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) were more associated with permanent secondary channels. Future restoration strategies in the LMR should consider dike notching and resultant maintenance of permanent secondary channels in selected river reaches. However, temporary secondary channels also contain unique fish species, and also appear to be important sites of riverine primary production. Restoration strategies should consider a balance of both secondary channel types, which should support the greatest biodiversity for the LMR ecosystem.
LENGTH-WEIGHT RELATIONSHIPS OF 18 FISH SPECIES FROM LAKE KUILEI, YANGTZE RIVER BASIN, CHINA
X. Cai, W. Li, Z. Li, T. Zhang, S. Ye, H. Fan, J. Liu
[摘要](219) [HTML全文](83) [PDF 293KB](10)
摘要:
This study is based on monthly sampling (from April 2013 to April 2015) of 18 fish species representing three families. Samples were obtained using benthic fyke-nets, block nets, and multi-mesh gillnets in Lake Kuilei, a shallow lake of the Yangtze River basin, China (N 31º24', E 120º51'). Using ordinary least-squares linear regression, length-weight relationships of these fish species were estimated, with equations for 3 species reported for the first time. The maximum total length records of the 15 species exceeded those reported in FishBase. This paper provides new LWR equations for these species to be included in FishBase.

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团头鲂GPR43基因克隆、组织分布及黄连素对其mRNA表达量的影响
陈丹红, 陈青青, 刘文斌, 张定东, 徐维娜
2018, 42(4): 663-672. doi: 10.7541/2018.082
[摘要](236) [HTML全文](99) [PDF 743KB](30)
摘要:
试验采用RACE技术克隆了团头鲂(Megalobrama amblycephala)G蛋白偶联受体43(GPR43)基因的cDNA序列, 并探究了不同组织中的GPR43 mRNA表达量及黄连素对其表达量的影响。结果显示, 克隆得到的团头鲂GPR43基因的cDNA序列全长为2026 bp, 含有1个长度为 981 bp的开放阅读框, 编码了326个氨基酸。RT-PCR检测发现GPR43在团头鲂的肠道、肌肉、鳃和肝胰腺中具有较高的表达。为期8周的养殖试验选取均重为(80.00±0.90) g的团头鲂320尾, 随机分于16个网箱中, 饲喂4种不同的试验日粮, 分别为正常日粮(脂肪含量为5%)、正常日粮+50 mg/kg黄连素、高脂日粮(脂肪含量为10%)、高脂日粮+50 mg/kg黄连素。结果显示: 在肠道组织中, 与正常日粮组相比, 高脂组的GPR43表达量降低, 添加黄连素能够显著升高其表达水平(P<0.05)。与正常日粮组相比, 高脂组的胆固醇(CHO)含量以及细胞分裂素蛋白激酶(p38)的表达量均呈现了显著上升(P<0.05)的趋势, 添加黄连素后其含量及表达量显著下降(P<0.05)。肝胰腺组织和肌肉组织中的多不饱和脂肪酸(PUFA)含量变化也有着相似的趋势, 而肉碱棕榈酰基转移酶Ⅰ(CPT Ⅰ)、过氧化物酶体增值因子α&β (PPARα&β)、AMP依赖性蛋白激酶(AMPK)的表达量以及2个组织中的饱和脂肪酸(SFA)和单不饱和脂肪酸(MUFA)含量呈现出了相反的趋势。此外, 在正常日粮中添加黄连素并不能对上述各指标产生明显的调控效应, 有时反而会导致轻微的负调控效应。综上结果表明, 黄连素能够显著上调GPR43在高脂抑制下的表达量, 同时能够缓解高脂诱导的团头鲂肝胰腺脂肪沉积, 改善其脂肪代谢性能。黄连素对于脂肪代谢的调控作用可能通过GPR43受体来实现。
银鲫转录调控因子lbh-b cDNA克隆与表达分析
李文华, 汪洋, 李志, 桂建芳, 周莉
2018, 42(4): 673-680. doi: 10.7541/2018.083
[摘要](206) [HTML全文](97) [PDF 627KB](37)
摘要:
Lbh (Limb-bud and heart)基因是脊椎动物中高度保守的转录调控因子, 在早期胚胎发育及某些人类疾病的发病过程中发挥着重要作用。我们前期在银鲫(Carassius gibelio)垂体转录组中筛选到一个在垂体中大量表达的基因lbh-b。为了进一步研究lbh基因在银鲫的表达特征, 首先采用RACE方法克隆了银鲫lbh基因家族的成员lbh-b基因(Cglbh-b)。Cglbh-b的cDNA全长1526 bp, 开放阅读框549 bp, 共编码182个氨基酸。生物信息学分析表明CgLbh-b蛋白与其他脊椎动物的Lbh蛋白同源性在68%以上, 可能也是无序蛋白质家族的成员之一。成体组织RT-PCR分析表明Cglbh-b仅在银鲫的垂体、端脑、卵巢及眼睛中表达。不同胚胎发育时期的表达分析表明, 在受精卵至原肠胚中Cglbh-b转录产物是以母源形式存在的mRNA, 其合子转录起始于尾芽期。胚胎整体原位杂交结果显示从受精后2d到受精后3d, Cglbh-b大量表达于脑和眼睛。此外, 随着卵子成熟Cglbh-b在银鲫垂体中的表达上调。这些结果暗示, Cglbh-b可能在调控银鲫脑和眼睛的发育以及卵子成熟过程中发挥着重要作用。
泥蚶G2代快速生长家系遗传结构的微卫星分析及其与生长性状的关联
滕爽爽, 方军, 邵艳卿, 林兴管, 柴雪良, 肖国强
2018, 42(4): 681-689. doi: 10.7541/2018.084
[摘要](232) [HTML全文](138) [PDF 609KB](10)
摘要:
利用微卫星标记对泥蚶(Tegillarca granosa Linnaeus) G2代家系的遗传结构和遗传多样性进行了分析, 并结合家系的表型生长数据, 关联分析筛选可用于育种的候选标记。遗传结构分析表明, 18对引物共检测出59个等位基因, 其中家系F19、F21、F22的平均等位基因数(Na)分别是2.500、2.722和2.722; 平均观测杂合度(Ho)为0.446、0.510和0.628; 平均期望杂合度(He)为0.394、0.433和0.464; 多态信息含量(PIC)分别是0.346、0.379和0.403。标记与生长性状的相关性分析显示, 有3个位点与壳高、壳长、壳宽和总质量显著相关, 其中F19家系的Teg-30的BB基因型与壳高、总质量显著相关, F21家系的Teg-03的BB基因型和Teg-20的BC基因型与壳高、壳长、壳宽和总质量均显著相关, 筛选出的与生长性状相关的标记为开展泥蚶分子标记辅助育种提供了有价值的遗传信息和参考依据。
七鳃鳗myd88基因的生物学特性及其下游分子的表达模式分析
赵春晖, 赵培哲, 刘欣, 李庆伟
2018, 42(4): 690-697. doi: 10.7541/2018.085
[摘要](219) [HTML全文](52) [PDF 542KB](14)
摘要:
髓样分化因子88 (Myeloid differentiation factor 88, MYD88)是Toll样受体(Toll-like receptor, TLR)信号通路的关键接头分子, 在先天性免疫和适应性免疫中都起到重要作用。为了揭示七鳃鳗Myd88的生物学功能, 研究首次从七鳃鳗(Lampetra japonica)中克隆了myd88基因, 其ORF为852 bp, 共编码283个氨基酸, 推测的分子量为32.432 kD, 等电点为6.25, 无信号肽。多重序列比对表明七鳃鳗Myd88的氨基酸序列与其他物种同源性较高, 具有高度保守的N端死亡结构域和C端的TIR结构域的Box1、Box2和Box3基序。实时荧光定量PCR分析表明: myd88基因在七鳃鳗各组织中均有低水平转录表达, 鳃中表达量最高, 其次是肌肉、髓和肾。脂多糖(LPS)体内刺激七鳃鳗后, 七鳃鳗myd88在白细胞中表达量升高最显著, 其次是在鳃中的表达量也明显升高, 表明七鳃鳗Myd88参与七鳃鳗的抗菌免疫过程。此外, LPS刺激七鳃鳗还能诱导TLR信号通路Myd88依赖途径的下游信号分子Irak1、Traf6、Ikkβ和Nfkb在各组织中的转录表达。研究结果表明七鳃鳗中可能存在TLR/Myd88信号通路, 为进一步探究该信号通路参与免疫应答的起源与进化奠定了基础。
饲料中添加雨生红球藻粉对三疣梭子蟹雌体卵巢发育、色泽、抗氧化能力和生化组成的影响
吴仁福, 龙晓文, 侯文杰, 潘桂平, 刘建国, 成永旭, 吴旭干
2018, 42(4): 698-708. doi: 10.7541/2018.086
[摘要](206) [HTML全文](57) [PDF 658KB](14)
摘要:
研究采用雨生红球藻(Haematococcus pluvialis)藻粉作为天然虾青素源, 配制4种不同虾青素含量(含量分别为0、26.60、41.62和81.37 mg/kg)的饲料(记为饲料1#—4#), 对三疣梭子蟹(Portunus trituberculatus)雌体进行为期45d的育肥实验, 研究其对雌蟹卵巢发育、色泽、抗氧化能力、免疫性能和生化组成的影响。结果表明: (1)育肥饲料中虾青素含量对雌蟹性腺指数(GSI)和肝胰腺指数(HSI)均无显著影响。(2)肝胰腺、卵巢和头胸甲中的总类胡萝卜素含量、红度(a*)值和黄度(b*)值均随饲料虾青素含量的升高而升高, 而3种组织的亮度(L*)值呈显著下降趋势(P<0.05)。(3)对抗氧化指标而言, 虾青素添加组(饲料2#—4#)血淋巴超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)和过氧化物酶(POD)活力均显著低于无虾青素组(饲料1#); 血淋巴中的总抗氧化能力(T-AOC)、谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-Px)及肝胰腺中的SOD和T-AOC活力均随饲料中虾青素水平升高而上升, 而血淋巴和肝胰腺中的丙二醛(MDA)含量呈下降趋势。(4)对免疫指标而言, 血淋巴和肝胰腺中的酸性磷酸酶(ACP)活力均在饲料4#组最高, 而饲料1#组血淋巴中的血蓝蛋白(Hc)含量显著高于其他组(P<0.05)。(5)对生化组成而言, 肌肉和肝胰腺中的总脂、总碳水化合物及卵巢中总脂含量均随饲料中虾青素含量的升高呈上升趋势, 饲料2#组卵巢中的总碳水化合物含量最高(P<0.05)。综上所述, 三疣梭子蟹雌体育肥饲料中添加虾青素对其卵巢发育无显著影响, 但可改善色泽和提高其抗氧化能力及可食组织中的总脂和碳水化合物含量, 三疣梭子蟹雌体育肥饲料中虾青素适宜含量为50 mg/kg饲料左右。
饲料蛋白质水平对洛氏鱥生长、非特异性免疫及蛋白质合成的影响
杨兰, 吴莉芳, 瞿子惠, 周锴, 段晶, 王静瑶, 祖岫杰
2018, 42(4): 709-718. doi: 10.7541/2018.087
[摘要](176) [HTML全文](51) [PDF 698KB](23)
摘要:
为了研究饲料蛋白质水平对洛氏鱥(Rhynchocypris lagowskii Dybowski)生长、非特异性免疫及蛋白质合成的影响, 以洛氏鱥幼鱼[(6.98±0.01) g/尾]为研究对象, 以鱼粉、棉粕、豆粕及菜粕为蛋白源, 配制成蛋白质水平为24.98%、30. 02%、34.99%、40.01%和44.98%的5种等能、等脂肪的配合饲料, 进行为期8周的饲养试验。结果表明, 在试验条件下, 随着饲料蛋白质水平的升高, 洛氏鱥的终末体质量、特定生长率、增重率均呈先升高后降低的趋势, 其中34.99%和40.01%组洛氏鱥的终末体质量、特定生长率及增重率显著高于24.98%组(P<0.05); 随着饲料蛋白质水平的升高, 洛氏鱥饲料效率和蛋白质效率呈先升高后降低的趋势, 其中40.01%组洛氏鱥饲料效率和蛋白质效率显著高于24.98%组(P<0.05), 但与30.01%、34.99%和40.01%组差异不显著(P>0.05)。通过折线回归分析得出, 饲料蛋白质水平为35.89%时, 洛氏鱥的特定生长率最高; 饲料蛋白质水平为36.11%时, 洛氏鱥饲料效率最高。洛氏鱥肌肉中粗蛋白质含量随饲料蛋白质水平的升高呈先上升后下降趋势, 其中, 40.01%组洛氏鱥肌肉中粗蛋白质含量显著高于24.98%、30.02%、34.99%和44.98%组(P<0.05); 而洛氏鱥肌肉中粗脂肪含量随饲料蛋白质水平的升高呈先下降后上升趋势, 其中, 40.01%组显著低于24.98%、30.02%和34.99%组(P<0.05), 但与44.98%组差异不显著(P>0.05)。洛氏鱥肝胰脏的碱性磷酸酶(AKP)、酸性磷酸酶(ACP)、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)和溶菌酶(LZM)活性随饲料蛋白质水平的升高呈先上升后下降的趋势, 其中40.01%组洛氏鱥AKP、ACP、SOD和LZM活性显著高于24.98%、30.02%、34.99%和44.98%组(P<0.05); 洛氏鱥白肌中RNA含量和RNA/DNA比值随饲料蛋白质水平的升高呈先升高后降低的趋势, 其中40.01%组洛氏鱥白肌中RNA含量和RNA/DNA显著高于24.98%、30.02%、34.99%和44.98% (P<0.05)。通过折线模型回归分析可知饲料蛋白质水平为36.10%时, 洛氏鱥白肌中RNA含量最高; 饲料蛋白质水平为35.91%时, 洛氏鱥白肌中RNA/DNA比率最高。在洛氏鱥配合饲料中, 最适宜蛋白质需求水平为34.99%—40.01%。
发酵豆粕替代鱼粉和豆粕对罗氏沼虾生长、血清生化及免疫基因表达的影响
杨景丰, 华雪铭, 郭子好, 刘韬, 孔纯, 冯悦, 王刚
2018, 42(4): 719-727. doi: 10.7541/2018.088
[摘要](135) [HTML全文](54) [PDF 589KB](19)
摘要:
为研究发酵豆粕在罗氏沼虾饲料中的适宜用量及替代后可能造成的影响, 以含有30%鱼粉和18%豆粕的饲料为基础饲料(T0组), 分别用2% (T2组)、5% (T5组)、8% (T8组)、15% (T15组)的发酵豆粕等蛋白替代基础饲料中的鱼粉和豆粕(2﹕1), 共配制5种等氮等能的实验饲料。选用初始均重为(0.17±0.02) g的罗氏沼虾在室内水泥池网箱中进行为期64d的养殖实验。结果显示, 发酵豆粕对鱼粉和豆粕的替代量影响罗氏沼虾的生长、血清生化及免疫基因表达。随着发酵豆粕添加量的增加, 增重率和特定生长率呈先升后降的趋势, 都以T8组最高。血清中丙二醛含量、超氧化物歧化酶活力随发酵豆粕添加量的增加均呈先升后降的趋势, 各替代组丙二醛含量均显著高于对照组(P<0.05); 血清谷丙转氨酶、谷草转氨酶活性和总蛋白含量呈先下降后上升的趋势, 且替代组不同程度低于对照组; T15组Toll受体、NF-κBHSP70转录水平表达量显著高于其他各组(P<0.05)。以上结果表明用不同水平的发酵豆粕替代鱼粉和豆粕, 显著影响罗氏沼虾的生长性能、抗氧化能力及免疫机能; 在实验条件下, 罗氏沼虾饲料中的发酵豆粕最佳使用量为8%。
饲料中添加谷胱甘肽对黄颡鱼幼鱼组织谷胱甘肽含量、免疫及抗氧化性能的影响
周艳玲, 孙育平, 黄燕华, 王国霞, 陈冰, 王卫民, 曹俊明, 易昌金
2018, 42(4): 728-735. doi: 10.7541/2018.089
[摘要](135) [HTML全文](56) [PDF 472KB](11)
摘要:
研究旨在探讨饲料中添加还原型谷胱甘肽(Glutathione, GSH)对黄颡鱼幼鱼(Pelteobagrus fulvidraco)组织谷胱甘肽含量、免疫及抗氧化性能的影响。选用初始体重为(1.32±0.01) g的黄颡鱼800尾, 随机分为5组, 每组4个重复, 每个重复40 尾鱼, 分别投喂基础饲料和添加100、300、500和700 mg/kg GSH的试验饲料, 饲养56d后采样分析, 并采用氯化铵进行96h氨氮应激试验。结果表明: 除100 mg/kg组外, 饲料中添加GSH显著提高黄颡鱼肝脏、血清GSH含量(P<0.05), 当GSH添加量≥300 mg/kg时, 肝脏和血清GSH含量均呈现稳定状态。随着饲料中谷胱甘肽水平的增加, 血清免疫和肝脏抗氧化指标均呈现先升高后降低的趋势, 其中300和500 mg/kg组溶菌酶与碱性磷酸酶活性、300 mg/kg组免疫球蛋白M与补体4含量、500 mg/kg组酸性磷酸酶活性与对照组相比显著升高(P<0.05)。与对照组和700 mg/kg组相比, 300 mg/kg组肝脏超氧化物歧化酶、过氧化氢酶、谷胱甘肽过氧化酶活性和总抗氧化能力与血清超氧化物歧化酶、谷胱甘肽过氧化酶活性均显著高升高(P<0.05); 且300 mg/kg组血清丙二醛含量显著降低(P<0.05)。氨氮应激96h时, 与对照组相比, 300 mg/kg组肝脏和血清超氧化物歧化酶、过氧化氢酶、谷胱甘肽过氧化酶活性力均显著升高(P<0.05), 且300 mg/kg组血清丙二醛含量显著降低(P<0.05)。由此可见, 饲料中添加谷胱甘肽能提高黄颡鱼幼鱼组织谷胱甘肽含量、免疫及抗氧化性能, 其中以300—500 mg/kg为宜。
饲料蛋白水平对方正银鲫幼鱼生长、体成分、肝脏生化指标和肠道消化酶活性的影响
桑永明, 杨瑶, 尹航, 武玉如, 尹海富
2018, 42(4): 736-743. doi: 10.7541/2018.090
[摘要](124) [HTML全文](49) [PDF 541KB](11)
摘要:
为研究饲料中不同蛋白水平对方正银鲫(Fang zheng Caucian carp)幼鱼生长、体成分、肝脏生化指标和肠道消化酶活性的影响, 配制蛋白水平为30.18%、33.13%、36.16%、39.34%、42.32%和45.46%的6种等脂等能饲料。选取初始质量为(3.10±0.01) g的方正银鲫幼鱼540尾, 随机分成6组, 每组3个重复, 每个重复30尾, 进行为期8周的饲养试验。结果表明: 随着饲料蛋白水平升高, 方正银鲫幼鱼增重率、特定生长率、饲料效率、蛋白质效率、全鱼粗蛋白含量、肝脏谷丙转氨酶和肠道胰蛋白酶活性均先升高后降低, 且在蛋白水平为36.16%时最大, 显著高于其他组(P<0.05); 肝脏总胆固醇和甘油三酯含量均呈逐渐下降趋势, 蛋白水平为30.18%的组显著高于除33.13%组以外的其他各组(P<0.05)。方正银鲫幼鱼特定生长率、蛋白质效率与不同蛋白水平分别进行二次回归分析得, 在试验条件下, 方正银鲫幼鱼饲料中最佳蛋白质水平为35.29%—37.07%。
两种油脂水平下DHA强化对饥饿鲤体重及脂代谢的影响
周继术, 曹艳姿, 吉红, 于海波
2018, 42(4): 744-750. doi: 10.7541/2018.091
[摘要](120) [HTML全文](55) [PDF 405KB](7)
摘要:
饥饿是鱼类无法有效获取食物从而使机体呈现能量匮乏的特殊时期, DHA (Docosahexaenoic acid)作为大多数鱼饥饿后得以特别保留的高不饱和脂肪酸, 它对饥饿鱼体可能具有特殊的能量调控作用。为进一步探讨这一问题, 研究设计了以下饲养试验: 先在6%与12%两个油脂水平下分别添加3%DHA制品, 形成基础组、基础-DHA组、高脂组和高脂-DHA组共4组试验饲料。将尾均重为(14.81±0.13) g的鲤360尾随机分为4组, 每组3个重复, 每个重复30尾鱼, 分别用以上4组饲料对进行饲喂, 饲养74d后, 每个养殖缸随机余留6尾鲤(Cyprinus carpio L.)进行饥饿, 36d后检测饥饿鲤体重、生物学性状、体成分、血清生化指标等。结果显示: ①在同一脂肪水平下, DHA添加组饥饿鲤体重减重率均分别显著高于无DHA组(P<0.05); ②在2个油脂水平下DHA添加组饥饿鲤肝细胞直径均分别显著低于无DHA组(P<0.05); 鱼体肥满度、空壳比率等生物学性状在各组饥饿鲤间均无显著差异(P>0.05); ③在2个油脂水平下, DHA添加组饥饿鲤肌肉及肠脂肪含量均分别显著低于无DHA组(P<0.05), 而饥饿鲤肝胰脏脂肪含量在各组间均无显著差异(P>0.05); ④饥饿鲤血清生化指标在各组间均无显著差异(P>0.05)。结果表明, DHA添加组饥饿鲤体重、肝细胞直径以及肌肉及肠脂肪含量均呈显著下降趋势, 显示出DHA的添加未能协助鲤有效抵御饥饿等不良环境的胁迫。
异育银鲫易钓性的表型基础和生态结果及饥饿响应
曾令清, 李梦露, 夏茂芹, 古方慧, 付世建
2018, 42(4): 751-761. doi: 10.7541/2018.092
[摘要](103) [HTML全文](51) [PDF 639KB](6)
摘要:
为考察鲤科鱼类易钓性种内差异的表型基础、生态结果及饥饿响应, 研究以异育银鲫(Carassius auratus gibelio)幼鱼为实验对象, 在饥饿前(对照组)测定其表型特征(能量代谢、游泳能力和个性行为)并垂钓, 随后在饥饿1周后再次垂钓(饥饿组), 最后进行2周的恢复摄食生长实验(恢复组)。垂钓实验具有4个重复, 每个重复的样本量为40尾, 垂钓1.5h即停止, 垂钓20尾为钓出组, 剩余20尾为未钓出组。研究发现: 除钓出组的相对代谢空间(FAS)小于未钓出组外, 钓出组的外部形态(体重、体长和肥满度)、能量代谢参数(标准代谢率SMR、最大代谢率MMR和代谢空间AS)、游泳能力(最大匀加速游泳能力Ucat和最大有氧运动能力Ugt)及个性行为(探索性、活跃性和勇敢性)与未钓出组均无明显差异(所有P>0.05); 在经历捕食者模拟袭击后, 实验鱼勇敢性的潜伏时间比大于探索性, 导致勇敢性的运动时间比和穿门频率小于探索性。SMR与UcatUgt不相关(P>0.05), 但MMR和AS与UcatUgt均呈正相关(P<0.05); 能量代谢参数与个性行为存在部分相关。饥饿增加异育银鲫的垂钓总时间、单尾平均垂钓时间和单尾垂钓时间的变异系数。钓出组在饥饿期的特定生长率(SGR)小于未钓出组, 而恢复期钓出组的SGR与未钓出组无显著差异; 除MMR和AS外, SMR与饥饿期及恢复期的SGR均呈负相关(P<0.05), 即SMR越高个体在饥饿期间的体重下降更快, 在恢复摄食后生长却较慢。研究表明: 异育银鲫幼鱼的易钓性可能不具备表型基础, 并且因环境食物匮乏而降低; 虽然饥饿期间两种易钓性表型个体的生态结果存在差异, 但该生长差异在营养恢复后消失, 表明异育银鲫的易钓性具有一定的环境依赖性。
淀山湖翘嘴鲌的年龄结构与生长特性
吕大伟, 周彦锋, 葛优, 王晨赫, 尤洋
2018, 42(4): 762-769. doi: 10.7541/2018.093
[摘要](165) [HTML全文](167) [PDF 1110KB](13)
摘要:
研究翘嘴鲌的年龄结构与生长特征可为探其繁殖、性成熟年龄、存活率等习性积累有效数据, 并可为优化鱼类种群结构、科学利用其种质资源提供参考依据。以2016年5月至2017年4月逐月于淀山湖采集到的452尾翘嘴鲌(Culter alburnus)为研究材料, 研究其年龄结构与生长特征间的紧密联系。结果表明: 翘嘴鲌体长15.32—77.91 cm; 体重范围43—5567 g。雌雄群体间的体长和体重的差异不显著(P>0.05), 体长和体重拟合关系式为W=0.00002L2.9211 (R2=0.9143, n=452), 符合匀速生长特性; 选用鳞片鉴定年龄、测量鳞径, 并建立von Berta-lanffy生长方程, Lt=99.65[1–e–0.1357(t+0.6287)]; Wt=11874.27[1–e–0.1357(t+0.6287)]2.9211。采集的翘嘴鲌样本由1—6龄组成, 优势年龄组3龄, 占样本总数的55.71%, 表明生长趋于低龄化、小型化; 生长拐点年龄为7.2711龄时对应的体长和体重分别为65.54 cm和3471.79 g。
中华鳖4个品系营养成分分析与比较
张君, 陈露, 余鹏, 周清妍, 杨小丽, 周伟尚, 沈保平, 苏时萍, 万全, 桂建芳
2018, 42(4): 770-778. doi: 10.7541/2018.094
[摘要](156) [HTML全文](139) [PDF 523KB](20)
摘要:
为了解墨鳖的营养价值, 对墨鳖、野生中华鳖、淮河鳖和日本鳖肌肉的一般营养成分、氨基酸含量、脂肪酸含量及裙边胶原蛋白进行测定和比较。结果显示: (1) 4个品系鳖肌肉水分含量分别为80.84%、79.48%、81.57%和79.25%, 墨鳖显著高于野生鳖和日本鳖(P<0.05); 粗蛋白含量分别是17.82%、17.60%、15.93%和16.40%, 墨鳖含量最高, 显著高于淮河鳖和日本鳖(P<0.05); 粗脂肪含量分别是0.42%、1.43%、0.65%和1.06%, 墨鳖显著低于其他鳖(P<0.05); 4个品系鳖灰分含量差异不显著(P>0.05)。(2) 4个品系鳖肌肉中总氨基酸和呈味氨基酸含量均以墨鳖最高。(3)4个品系鳖不饱和脂肪酸含量分别为65.19%、56.44%、59.32%和54.73%, 墨鳖显著高于其他鳖(P<0.05), 其中墨鳖单不饱和脂肪酸含量显著低于野生鳖(P<0.05), 多不饱和脂肪酸含量显著高于其他3个品系(P<0.05); 饱和脂肪酸含量分别为32.50%、41.85%、39.41%和39.98%, 墨鳖显著低于其他鳖(P<0.05)。(4)墨鳖肌肉中DHA和EPA含量与野生鳖差异不显著(P>0.05), 显著高于淮河鳖和日本鳖(P<0.05), 花生四烯酸(AA)含量显著高于其他3个品系鳖(P<0.05)。(5) 4个品系鳖裙边胶原蛋白含量均较高, 为160.6—170.4 mg/g。结果表明墨鳖是一种营养价值高、肉味鲜美的地方品系。
中华鲟Vtg间接竞争ELISA检测方法的建立和应用
冷小茜, 叶欢, 杜浩, 李创举, 危起伟
2018, 42(4): 779-785. doi: 10.7541/2018.095
[摘要](120) [HTML全文](55) [PDF 601KB](8)
摘要:
卵黄蛋白原(Vitellogenin, Vtg)被认为是一种理想的雌激素和类雌激素标志物, 通过建立一种中华鲟Acipenser sinensis血浆Vtg水平的检测方法, 进而开发一项中华鲟性腺成熟度的诊断技术。首先通过RACE-PCR方法扩增得到中华鲟vtg基因cDNA序列, 氨基酸序列分析预测其蛋白分子量大小为196 kD。构建Vtg功能区段融合原核表达载体pET32a(+)-vtg并表达纯化重组蛋白, 并以重组蛋白免疫兔子获得多克隆抗血清, Western blotting检测显示抗血清的特异性较好。以纯化的中华鲟重组Vtg蛋白为抗原, 中华鲟Vtg多克隆抗血清为抗体, 建立了中华鲟血浆Vtg的间接竞争酶联免疫检测方法(ELISA), 标准曲线线性回归方程为y= –0.2916x+0.6794, 相关系数R2为0.9976。该方法检测的灵敏度为4.12 μg/mL, 最低检测限为0.3 μg/mL, 批内和批间变异系数分别为2.52%和3.42%。通过对不同发育时期雌性中华鲟血样检测, 表明此ELISA方法可初步用于雌性中华鲟性腺发育时期监测。
中华鳖源致病性产吲哚金黄杆菌分离、鉴定及药敏特性分析
杨移斌, 艾晓辉, 宋怿, 曹海鹏, 杨先乐, 姚嘉赟, 沈锦玉
2018, 42(4): 786-793. doi: 10.7541/2018.096
[摘要](136) [HTML全文](53) [PDF 531KB](6)
摘要:
对患病中华鳖(Pelodiscus sinensis)进行病原分离、鉴定及药敏实验, 从患病中华鳖皮肤、肝肾脾重要器官分离纯化病原菌, 经理化特性测定及16S rRNA序列分析对其进行鉴定及人工感染试验, 并利用K-B及二倍稀释法进行药敏特性分析。结果表明分离株J22是为中华鳖腐皮病病原, 其对中华鳖的LD50为3.30×104 CFU/g。J22株理化特性与产吲哚金黄杆菌(Chryseobacterium indologenes)一致, 16S rRNA序列与产吲哚金黄杆菌同源性为99%, 综合判定J22株是产吲哚金黄杆菌。分离株对新霉素、庆大霉素及阿莫西林等12种抗生素高度敏感, 对氟苯尼考及多西环素等抗生素耐药; 二氧化氯、漂白粉及高铁酸钾对分离株消毒效果较好。分离菌株J22是中华鳖病原菌, 养殖时可选用庆大霉素、新霉素或者阿莫西林内服, 配合使用二氧化氯、漂白粉及高铁酸钾等外用进行防控。
人工驯养鼋繁殖习性研究
洪孝友, 朱新平, 陈辰, 赵建, 叶朝阳, 仇全波
2018, 42(4): 794-799. doi: 10.7541/2018.097
[摘要](187) [HTML全文](61) [PDF 522KB](11)
摘要:
鼋(Pelochelys cantorii, 1864)属于中国国家一级重点保护野生动物, 生物学资料相对匮乏, 2015和2016年连续2年对人工驯养的4只亲鼋(2雌2雄)进行了繁殖生物学研究。人工驯养鼋的产卵期集中在5—8月, 夜间产卵, 无护卵行为。通过视频观察分析, 鼋产卵过程可分为Ⅳ个阶段。2只雌鼋2015年共产卵10窝, 每窝32—50枚, 共406枚, 受精273枚, 受精率为67.24%, 孵出稚鼋140只, 孵化率为51.28%; 2016年共产卵11窝, 每窝40—55枚, 共489枚, 受精353枚, 受精率为72.19%, 孵出稚鼋212只, 孵化率为60.06%。鼋卵圆形, 刚性, 均重(16.82±1.99) g, 卵直径(3.10±0.18) cm, 刚孵出稚鼋均重(13.60±0.85) g, 在人工控温下平均孵化期为(64.94±3.47)d。繁殖数据表明这2对鼋处于生育盛年期。针对2016年的繁殖数据分析, 2只雌鼋每窝产卵量无明显差异, 卵均重和卵直径间有显著相关性, 雌鼋1个体体重大于雌鼋2, 前者产的卵均重显著大于后者, 孵出稚鼋的初重差异也显著, 卵大, 稚鼋也大。孵出的稚鼋以活鱼苗为饵料, 在温室内人工养殖周年, 均重可以达(510.30±82.77) g。研究旨在为鼋繁育生物学提供基础性数据, 为其资源保护做贡献。
西南大西洋阿根廷滑柔鱼雄性个体的有效繁殖力特性研究
宣思鹏, 陈新军, 林东明, 陈子末
2018, 42(4): 800-810. doi: 10.7541/2018.098
[摘要](134) [HTML全文](55) [PDF 1135KB](10)
摘要:
对西南大西洋阿根廷滑柔鱼(Illex argentinus)雄性个体的有效繁殖力特性, 以及有效繁殖力与个体生长发育关系进行了研究。结果表明, 阿根廷滑柔鱼雄性个体的胴长、体重的生物学最小型分别为207.79 mm和162.55 g; 个体有效繁殖力为(374±280.33)条精荚, 胴长相对有效繁殖力为(179.18±117.66)条/mm; 精荚的平均长度为(21.57±4.17) mm, 是胴长的(10.22±1.82)%。随着性腺发育, 个体有效繁殖力和精荚长度均增长显著(P<0.05), 前者在功能性成熟期达到最大值, 为(811±181.34)条精荚; 后者在繁殖产卵期达到最大值, 为(23.89±3.87) mm。同时, 个体有效繁殖力和精荚长度均与胴长、体重呈显著的线性函数关系(P<0.05)。回归拟合数据集比较分析和多元线性回归分析显示, 个体有效繁殖力与胴长、体重之间的线性关系不存在显著性差异(P>0.05), 但是体重对个体有效繁殖力的影响更为显著(P<0.001); 精荚长度与胴长、体重之间的线性关系存在显著性差异(P<0.001), 并且胴长、体重两者对精荚长度具有一致的影响效应(P<0.001)。以上结果表明, 阿根廷滑柔鱼雄性个体随着性腺发育持续产生并存储精荚, 精荚长度也随之显著增加, 并且与个体大小密切相关。
一株高脂土壤小球藻的分离鉴定及脂质分析
苏杭, 吕俊平, 刘琪, 谢树莲, 冯佳
2018, 42(4): 811-818. doi: 10.7541/2018.099
[摘要](115) [HTML全文](63) [PDF 1089KB](5)
摘要:
对采自山西省庞泉沟国家自然保护区的土壤中的藻种进行分离鉴定, 获得了一株优良的高脂绿藻。经显微形态观察鉴定, 该藻株的形态特征属于小球藻属Chlorella (Chlorellasp. PQG67)。进一步对其rbcL和18S rDNA基因序列进行分析并构建系统树, 结果表明基因序列与普通小球藻Ch. vulgaris同源并聚为一支, 确定其为一株普通小球藻Ch. vulgaris PQG67。在不同光照强度下连续培养后测定其油脂含量稳定在30%左右, 在不同NaCl浓度胁迫条件下可达40%以上, 并通过叶绿素荧光值测量探索该藻株生长趋势。通过傅立叶变换红外光谱图对其油脂积累过程分析, 显示该藻株脂类成分在1634/cm附近, 有vC=O伸缩振动谱带, 随着培养时间的延长, 脂质含量的相对强度也在增加。可见该藻株具有较高的生长速率及产油能力, 是一株具产业化应用潜力的优良产油藻株。
一株富含α-亚麻酸栅藻的异养培养条件优化
孟霞, 高宏, 孔任秋, 徐旭东
2018, 42(4): 819-823. doi: 10.7541/2018.100
[摘要](138) [HTML全文](55) [PDF 582KB](20)
摘要:
HSJ296是本实验室分离纯化的1株能够异养生长、富含α-亚麻酸的栅藻(Scenedesmus sp.)。研究比较了不同温度、氮源和葡萄糖浓度对其生长的影响, 结果显示, 其最适培养条件为30℃、4 g/L尿素和20—40 g/L葡萄糖。通过分析不同培养条件下HSJ296总脂中的脂肪酸组成, 发现主要含有十六碳脂肪酸(C16:0)、油酸(C18:1)、亚油酸(C18:2)和α-亚麻酸(α-C18:3), 并且α-亚麻酸的含量稳定在35%—45%。栅藻HSJ296发酵产品或可用作鱼类饲料添加剂以补充α-亚麻酸等营养。
海链藻属一新变种艾伦海链藻肋纹变种
郭晓慧, 郭雅琼, 李扬
2018, 42(4): 824-831. doi: 10.7541/2018.101
[摘要](117) [HTML全文](60) [PDF 662KB](8)
摘要:
为了澄清海链藻属Thalassiosira的物种多样性, 采用毛细管复洗技术建立了单克隆培养株系。利用光镜和扫描电镜观察形态学特征, 并扩增其核糖体小亚基和大亚基序列, 用于分子系统树的构建。结合形态学和分子系统学数据, 发现艾伦海链藻株系之间存在一定的形态差异和遗传多样性。经过与原始文献的比对, 确认了艾伦海链藻原变种的特征, 并报道了该种的一个新变种艾伦海链藻肋纹变种Thalassiosira allenii var. striata X. H. Guo, Y. Q. Guo & Y. Li。该变种与原变种的形态特征基本相似, 区别在于壳面边缘具有肋纹结构, 原变种则无。基于核糖体小亚基和大亚基的系统树均显示, 肋纹变种与原变种聚在同一个分支上, 形成姐妹支(BPP>0.90), 表明两者之间具有最近的亲缘关系。2个变种的核糖体小亚基序列完全一致, 没有碱基差异。但用于分析的556个核糖体大亚基序列中, 两者存在11个差异碱基, 遗传距离为0.01。
生长素吲哚乙酸对铜绿微囊藻生理生化及产毒特性的影响
卿纯, 张卉灵, 林毅青, 李俊, 胡婷, 邵继海
2018, 42(4): 832-838. doi: 10.7541/2018.102
[摘要](201) [HTML全文](58) [PDF 717KB](11)
摘要:
为了探究生长素吲哚乙酸(IAA)对产毒铜绿微囊藻(Microcystis aeruginosa)的影响, 从生长、光合色素含量、叶绿素光诱导荧光特征、脂质氧化和微囊藻毒素合成特性等方面, 研究了IAA对M. aeruginosa CHAB6301生理生化及产毒的影响。结果表明, 在低浓度IAA(0.04和0.2 mg/L)条件下, 铜绿微囊藻生长、叶绿素含量、光合系统(PSⅡ)电子传递效率及藻毒素含量均无明显变化, 藻蓝蛋白、别藻蓝蛋白和丙二醛(MDA)含量均低于对照。高浓度IAA(0.04和0.2 mg/L)能够促进细胞生长, 提高叶绿素含量, 但是抑制藻蓝蛋白和别藻蓝蛋白含量, 降低膜脂过氧化程度和细胞内藻毒素合成。综合各指标测定结果, 低浓度IAA对M. aeruginosa CHAB6301生长和光合作用影响不明显, 而高浓度IAA可促进藻细胞生长和光合作用, 增加微囊藻水华形成几率。
甲磺隆对微囊藻生长和光合系统的影响
马晓洁, 王钰亮, 卢韩杨, 刘洋, 李效宇, 李仁辉
2018, 42(4): 839-845. doi: 10.7541/2018.103
[摘要](127) [HTML全文](69) [PDF 1069KB](9)
摘要:
研究选取了水体常见蓝藻优势种类——铜绿微囊藻(Microcystis aeruginosa PCC7806)作为研究对象, 了解磺酰脲类除草剂甲磺隆(Metsulfuron-methyl)对铜绿微囊藻生长和光合系统的影响。研究表明, 当甲磺隆浓度大于80 mg/L时, 对铜绿微囊藻的生长具有显著抑制。通过回归分析和Probit分析, 甲磺隆对铜绿微囊藻生长的EC50为81.998 mg/L。细胞色素研究结果显示, 实验第6天, 各浓度处理下单位细胞内Chl.a和类胡萝卜素含量均低于对照组, 且当甲磺隆浓度为80 mg/L时, 单位细胞内类胡萝卜素含量显著低于对照组。快速叶绿素荧光诱导动力学变化结果分析显示, 实验第6天甲磺隆胁迫下单位反应中心捕获的用于电子传递的能量(ET0/RC)及单位反应中心用于电子传递的量子产额(φE0)受到显著抑制, 综合细胞色素变化结果显示, 甲磺隆能显著抑制光合系统反应中心电子受体侧电子性能。综上所述, 甲磺隆可能作用于光合系统反应中心电子受体侧, 从而对铜绿微囊藻光合系统造成影响。
光强对菹草生长及抗氧化酶活性的影响
曹昀, 罗姗姗, 陈冰祥
2018, 42(4): 846-853. doi: 10.7541/2018.104
[摘要](155) [HTML全文](55) [PDF 806KB](19)
摘要:
试验以菹草(Potamogeton crispus)为试验材料, 在7种不同光强(自然光的100%、60%、40%、20%、10%、5%和1%)条件下, 测定并分析菹草的形态指标(株高、叶片数)和生理指标(叶绿素、根系活力、抗氧化酶活性及丙二醛)对光强条件的响应, 为富营养化水体植物群落的构建提供理论依据。结果表明: (1)随着光照强度的增大, 菹草的株高、叶片数、生物量增长率显著上升, 而光强过高(CK组)和过低(1%组)菹草生长受到抑制; (2)菹草叶绿素含量随光照强度的增大, 呈先上升后下降趋势。1%组和CK组Chl. a、Chl. b、Chl. a+b和Car含量低, 其余各组含量较高; (3)随着试验时间的延长, 菹草根系活力呈先上升后下降趋势, 20%组、40%组和60%组的根系活力较大; (4)菹草SOD、POD和CAT活性整体表现为先升后降趋势, 试验后期1%和CK组SOD含量较高, POD、CAT含量较低。菹草叶片MDA含量在试验过程中不断上升, 抑制菹草的正常生长。自然光照的20%—60%, 菹草生长状况较好; 持续的弱光胁迫将导致植物活性氧代谢失调, 细胞受到伤害, 最终导致植物死亡。
中国典型湖泊富营养化现状与区域性差异分析
李娜, 黎佳茜, 李国文, 李晔, 席北斗, 吴易雯, 李曹乐, 李伟, 张列宇
2018, 42(4): 854-864. doi: 10.7541/2018.105
[摘要](217) [HTML全文](70) [PDF 1456KB](31)
摘要:
为全面科学地综合评估全国富营养化现状, 以全国五大湖区22个典型湖泊为研究对象, 科学评估了其富营养化状态, 分析了全国湖泊富营养化状态的区域性差异, 并探讨了富营养化状态与总磷的定量关系。结果表明, 2010—2011年, 59.1%的调研湖泊处于不同程度的富营养化状态, 其中云贵湖区的富营养化程度最为严重, 蒙新湖区的富营养化呈两极分化状态, 东北山地-平原湖区与东部湖区的湖泊基本均处于中营养-轻度富营养之间, 青藏高原湖区的富营养化程度最低。通过分析日照数、无霜期、气温、水深、海拔、降雨与湖泊营养状态的关系, 揭示了湖泊所处的地理位置是影响湖泊富营养化的基本因素, 具有区域性的分布规律。综合分析结果表明, 全国范围内湖泊中叶绿素a与总磷浓度存在显著相关性, 其中东部平原湖区、东北平原-山地湖区、青藏高原湖区和云贵高原湖区的叶绿素a与总磷浓度符合三次曲线方程, 蒙新湖区的叶绿素a与总磷浓度符合S型曲线方程; 东部平原湖区、东北平原-山地湖区、青藏高原湖区叶绿素浓度随着总磷浓度的增加, 首先出现1个极小值点, 然后出现1个极大值点, 其中3个湖区极小值点对应的总磷浓度分别为: 0.054、0.089和0.072 mg/L, 可为我国对应湖区的湖泊富营养化控制指标提供借鉴。
淡水中型浮游动物群体与悬浮物碳氮磷比耦联研究
耿红, 程凤, 王松波, 杜鸿, 吴来燕
2018, 42(4): 865-870. doi: 10.7541/2018.106
[摘要](256) [HTML全文](91) [PDF 661KB](38)
摘要:
通过对湖北省13个湖库悬浮物和中型浮游动物群体碳氮磷比的分析, 探讨了浮游动物与食物之间的元素耦联和不平衡性是如何随食物质量的改变而变化, 以及这种不平衡性对生态系统浮游动植物间能量传递效率的影响。结果显示: 中型浮游动物C﹕N比和C﹕P比分别随悬浮物C﹕N比和C﹕P比的增加而变大。悬浮物-中型浮游动物之间的元素不平衡性不仅与悬浮物C﹕N比显著正相关(r=0.97, P<0.001), 且与悬浮物C﹕P比也显著正相关(r=0.81, P=0.001)。浮游动植物之间的能量传递效率与悬浮物-中型浮游动物C﹕P比差值呈显著负相关(r= –0.58, P=0.037), 但与其C﹕N比差值关系不显著(P>0.05)。此外, 中型浮游动物生物量也随其与悬浮物之间C﹕P比差值的增大而下降(r= –0.59, P=0.033)。这些结果表明, 悬浮物碳氮磷比能显著影响中型浮游动物群体的碳氮磷比组成, 两者之间的元素不平衡性随前者的增加而变大并进而降低能量向后者的传递。

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