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感染草鱼呼肠孤病毒对肠道菌群多样性的影响
朱文根, 李星浩, 饶刘瑜, 黄洁, 余育和, 肖凡书, 颜庆云
[摘要](39) [HTML全文](10) [PDF 725KB](2)
摘要:
为揭示草鱼呼肠孤病毒(Grass Carp Reovirus, GCRV)对草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)肠道菌群的影响, 在通过人工浸泡方式感染GCRV后, 采用针对16S rRNA基因的高通量测序技术对草鱼肠道菌群的组成和多样性进行了研究。结果显示, 感染组与对照组差异显著(MRPP, Anoism, Adonis, P<0.01), 且感染组肠道菌群的Alpha多样性指数(Shannon-Wienner、Inverse Simpson、Pielou evenness)显著低于对照组(t-test, P<0.05)。此外, 肠道菌群在感染组个体间差异显著大于对照组(Wilcox test,P<0.05), 表明患病草鱼肠道菌群失去原有平衡而变得紊乱。尽管病毒感染组和对照组草鱼肠道优势菌门均为Proteobacteria、Firmicutes、Bacteroidetes、Fusobacteria, 但在OTU水平仍表现出明显的变化, 如OTU_69(Pasteurellaceae)、OTU_504(Comamonadaceae)和OTU_1898(Cetobacterium)在感染GCRV组丰度显著降低(t-test, P<0.05), 也表明GCRV感染可使草鱼肠道微生态发生紊乱。肠道菌群结构稳定对于宿主健康具有重要意义, 研究患病鱼肠道菌群状况为鱼类常见疾病的防控提供科学依据, 也为健康养殖提供参考。
模拟运输对异育银鲫血液生理生化指标、体色和肉质的影响
张玉平, 刘昊昆, 金俊琰, 朱晓鸣, 韩冬, 杨云霞, 解绶启
[摘要](9) [HTML全文](9) [PDF 445KB](2)
摘要:
实验以异育银鲫“中科3号”(Carassis auratus gibelio var. CAS III)为研究对象, 通过模拟汽车运输振动台模拟4h运输, 研究模拟运输对异育银鲫血液生理生化指标、体色和肉质及水质的影响。研究结果表明: 经过模拟运输后, 运鱼袋内水体氨氮显著升高(P<0.01), pH显著下降(P<0.05), 溶解氧含量升高。模拟运输后异育银鲫血浆中皮质醇、葡萄糖和丙二醛浓度显著升高(P<0.01); 乳酸浓度显著降低(P<0.01); 谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶活力显著降低(P<0.05); 超氧化物歧化酶和过氧化氢酶活力降低但差异不显著(P>0.05)。在模拟运输4h后, 异育银鲫背部亮度值(L*)显著降低(P<0.01), 黄色值(b*)在背部和侧线部较模拟运输前显著降低(P<0.01), 在腹部较模拟运输前显著降低(P<0.05), 侧线部和腹部的亮度值(L*), 以及背部、侧线部和腹部的红色值(a*)下降但差异不显著(P>0.05)。在模拟运输后, 异育银鲫背肌内聚性、咀嚼性和回复性显著降低(P<0.05), 硬度、胶黏性、弹性和黏性变化但差异不显著(P>0.05)。实验结果表明, 4h模拟运输能够引起运鱼袋水体水质情况改变, 诱导异育银鲫鱼体的应激反应, 导致实验鱼体色和鱼肉品质相关指标的变化, 降低了鱼肉品质部分指标。
长江中下游浅水湖群底栖动物资源量宏观格局与预测模型
王海军, 王洪铸, 赵永晶, 潘保柱, 舒凤月, 冯伟松, 梁小民
[摘要](134) [HTML全文](67) [PDF 645KB](23)
摘要:
长江泛滥平原是世界上最重要的湿地之一。近几十年来, 该区域许多湖泊面临着渔业资源过度利用和人为富营养化等各种问题。建立区域尺度的湖泊生态系统定量管理平台是解决这些问题的重要基础。研究针对国际上缺少区域尺度高预测力资源量预测模型这一问题, 利用底栖动物这一重要生物类群, 开展了基于长江中下游46个中小型湖泊105湖次实地调查的区域比较研究。结果显示该区域湖泊寡毛类密度和生物量分别为(403±225) ind./m2和(1.12±0.39) g/m2, 螺类密度和生物量分别为(82±20) ind./m2和(26.38±3.99) g/m2, 摇蚊密度和生物量为(356±62) ind./m2和(1.86±0.58) g/m2, 总计密度和生物量为(847±248) ind./m2和(29.41±3.97) g/m2。环境分析表明, 影响底栖动物现存量的主要因子是水深、透明度、水温、总磷、浮游藻类叶绿素a和沉水植物生物量, 并据此构建了一系列底栖动物资源量预测模型。模型对底栖动物密度的解释率总体优于生物量。在系列简单回归模型中, 对各类群密度和总密度的最优解释率为18%—33%, 对各类群和总生物量的解释率为7%—18%; 在多元回归模型中, 对各类群密度和总密度的解释率为46%—49%, 对各类群和总生物量的解释率为16%—55%。若考虑样本量大这一因素, 模型的解释率明显优于过去已有工作。尽管多元回归模型相对于简单回归模型解释率普遍升高, 但模型百分误差率没有明显改变。其中密度和生物量简单回归模型百分误差率的分别为76%—171%和115%—1034%, 多元回归模型的百分误差率分别为88%—114%和141%—1015%。因此, 在实际应用中, 建议选择变量少而预测能力相当的简单回归模型。
毛枝藻对人工污水脱氮除磷能力的研究
李鲁丹, 胡征宇, 刘国祥
[摘要](31) [HTML全文](11) [PDF 941KB](2)
摘要:
文章探究了2株毛枝藻(Stigeoclonium sp.)SHY-370及HB1617在不同初始氨氮浓度以及不同氮磷比条件下的生长情况与氮磷去除能力。结果表明氨氮浓度对2株毛枝藻的生长及TP去除能力均有一定的影响, SHY-370可耐受最大氨氮浓度为10 mg/L, HB1617为5 mg/L; 氨氮浓度为1-10 mg/L时SHY-370及HB1617对其去除率均达到97%以上, 最大去除速率为3.98 mg/(L·d)。氮磷比对SHY-370的生长影响不大, 但在氮磷比大于20时HB1617的生长受到抑制; SHY-370对 \begin{document}${\rm{NO}}_3^ – $\end{document} -N去除的最佳氮磷比为10-40, HB1617为2-10; 氮磷比为2时水体中TP的含量超过了SHY-370及HB1617所能去除的最大值, 去除率较低。实验结果表明SHY-370及HB1617在污水深度脱氮除磷方面具有一定的潜力, 可考虑将其应用于城市生活污水二级出水(TN≤15 mg/L、TP≤0.5 mg/L、 \begin{document}${\rm{NH}}_4^ + $\end{document} -N≤5 mg/L)的深度处理。
罗伊氏乳杆菌对组胺引起黄颡鱼肝肠损伤修复效果评价
成艳波, 李薇, 韩木兰, 许国焕, 谢黎炜, 印遇龙, 梁建庆
[摘要](9) [HTML全文](7) [PDF 751KB](2)
摘要:
以黄颡鱼(Pelteobagrus fulvidraco)(14.23±0.65) g为实验对象, 分别饲喂3组等氮饲料(C组: 组胺含量147 mg/kg; H组: 479 mg/kg和H+B组: 496 mg/kg+1×105 CFU/g罗伊氏乳杆菌Lactobacillus reuteri), 进行56d的养殖实验, 研究组胺及罗伊氏乳杆菌对黄颡鱼的影响。结果显示, H+B组血清谷丙转氨酶(ALT)及谷草转氨酶(AST)活力显著低于H组(P<0.05), 而与C组无差异(P>0.05); H+B组肝脏谷胱甘肽S转移酶(GSH-ST)活力及丙二醛(MDA)含量显著低于H组(P<0.05), 与C组无差异(P>0.05); 肝脏HE染色显示, H组肝脏中有较多炎症细胞浸润, 而H+B组肝脏细胞结构完整, 无明显损伤; 肠道HE染色显示, H组肠道皱襞数量明显减少、长度显著变短, 有水肿发生, 而H+B组肠道皱襞数量、长度与对照组无差异, 水肿程度不明显。结果表明: 组胺会引起黄颡鱼肝脏、肠道损伤, 而罗伊氏乳杆菌对组胺引发的肝肠损伤有保护功效。
辐照提高人工湿地美人蕉抗寒性及其越冬效果研究
郑文萍, 童伟军, 马琳, 张义, 吴振斌, 贺锋
[摘要](57) [HTML全文](39) [PDF 706KB](6)
摘要:
植物是人工湿地的重要组成部分, 但大多数湿地植物在低温环境下不能生存, 微生物活性受到抑制, 导致人工湿地低温应用受到限制。研究将辐照育种的手段应用于湿地植物, 以提高其抗寒性。研究采用25 Gy、45 Gy、60 Gy和80 Gy的γ射线对美人蕉(Canna indica L.)种子进行辐照, 剂量率为6 Gy/min, 待幼苗长出后进行阶段性降温培养, 并评价各组抗寒性。结果表明: 在低温下, 辐照幼苗的超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化物酶(POD)和过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性均高于对照组。对照组丙二醛(MDA)在低温下大量积累, 且含量显著高于辐照组。在低温条件下, 幼苗脯氨酸、可溶性糖、蛋白质含量高于对照组。辐照组抗寒性得分高于对照组, 45 Gy组得分最高。随后将最佳辐照处理的美人蕉种植于人工湿地, 对其冬季净化效果进行评估, 评价指标包括: 总磷(TP)、总氮(TN)、化学需氧量(COD)。结果发现, 45 Gy辐照组人工湿地的冬季TP去除率显著高于对照组(P<0.05)。由此可见, 辐照处理能够有效提高美人蕉的抗寒性, 并提高人工湿地冬季净化效果。
长江口水生动物食物网营养结构及其变化
徐超, 王思凯, 赵峰, 杨刚, 庄平
[摘要](103) [HTML全文](71) [PDF 685KB](8)
摘要:
为研究长江口水生动物食物网营养结构及其变化, 运用胃含物分析法研究了2016—2017年长江口及其邻近水域捕获的43种水生动物的食性类型与营养结构, 并与20世纪90年代和2006年文献数据进行了比较, 结果表明, 长江口及其邻近水域捕获的水生动物分为4种食性类型: 浮游生物食性、底栖生物食性、游泳生物食性、混合食性, 其中浮游生物食性消费者占绝对优势, 为39.53%; 游泳生物食性消费者所占比例最少, 为11.63%。所分析样品的营养级可分为3级, 其中植食性消费者占优势, 为76.75%; 中级肉食性消费者所占比例最少, 为4.65%; 与20世纪90年代相比, 12种常见鱼类的平均营养级由3.80下降到2.87。长江口水生动物食物网结构较为复杂, 生产者类型包括底栖藻类、浮游植物、有机碎屑3种, 主要由牧食食物链和碎屑食物链构成复杂的食物网。
力竭追赶训练对两种鲤科鱼类呼吸循环系统参数和力竭运动后代谢特征的影响
李秀明, 张耀光, 何春梅, 郭海燕, 付世建
[摘要](79) [HTML全文](56) [PDF 533KB](5)
摘要:
为了考察力竭追赶训练对中华倒刺鲃(Spinibarbus sinensis)和岩原鲤(Procypris rabaudi)幼鱼呼吸循环系统和力竭运动后代谢特征的影响, 在(25±0.5)℃条件下, 将2种实验鱼各60尾 [体重分别为(28.36±0.08)g和(19.53±0.13)g]随机等分成对照组和训练组, 训练组进行1次/d共21d的力竭追赶训练。随后测定各组实验鱼的心脏和鳃指数、血液指标以及力竭运动后过量耗氧(Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption, EPOC)。结果发现: 2种鱼心脏指数、鳃指数、血红蛋白含量和红细胞数目在各自对照组和训练组之间都没有显著性差异; 岩原鲤对照组的鳃指数显著低于中华倒刺鲃对照组(P<0.05), 但心脏指数、血红蛋白含量和红细胞数目与中华倒刺鲃对照组无显著性差异。中华倒刺鲃训练组的运动前代谢率、运动代谢峰值、峰值比率、代谢恢复速率与其对照组没有显著差异, 但运动后恢复时间和过量耗氧显著大于对照组(P<0.05); 岩原鲤训练组的运动前代谢率显著低于其对照组(P<0.05), 但运动代谢峰值、峰值比率、运动后恢复时间、过量耗氧、代谢恢复速率与其对照组没有显著性差异。岩原鲤对照组的运动前代谢率、运动代谢峰值、过量耗氧和代谢恢复速率分别显著低于中华倒刺鲃对照组(P<0.05), 但峰值比率和运动后恢复时间与中华倒刺鲃对照组无显著性差异。研究表明: (1)力竭追赶训练对中华倒刺鲃和岩原鲤幼鱼的呼吸和循环系统参数没有产生显著性影响; (2)力竭追赶训练显著提高了中华倒刺鲃幼鱼的无氧代谢能力; (3)中华倒刺鲃幼鱼力竭运动前后代谢率显著高于岩原鲤幼鱼, 这可能与其较为活跃的习性有关。
中华鳖Foxl2基因克隆及外源性激素对其表达的影响
高丽丽, 刁晓明, 李云, 翟旭亮, 周春龙
[摘要](123) [HTML全文](63) [PDF 648KB](11)
摘要:
外源性激素在中华鳖(Pelodiscus sinensis)性别决定有重要作用, 为给中华鳖性别决定机制研究提供生物学信息, 首次克隆和分析了中华鳖Foxl2 cDNA部分序列。为研究其在遗传和生理水平的差异, 以10 mg/kg剂量17α-甲基睾酮(MT)和17β-雌二醇(E2)分别对中华鳖雌雄个体注射, 检测0、6h、12h、24h、48h、7d和14d性腺Foxl2 mRNA表达水平。获得中华鳖Foxl2基因(GenBank登录号: KP734210)部分 cDNA长903 bp, 共编码300个氨基酸, 属于叉头框转录因子家族, 参与卵巢发育和功能维持; 多重序列比对显示, Foxl2具有典型的FH结构域, 与红耳龟的同源性最高, 达到99%; 系统进化树分析显示, 中华鳖Foxl2基因与爬行动物Foxl2基因聚为一个亚支, 且与西部锦龟Foxl2基因距离最近。荧光定量PCR结果显示, 与对照组相比, 注射E2后24h, 卵巢Foxl2 mRNA表达水平被极显著上调(P<0.001), 7d和14d后, 精巢Foxl2 mRNA表达水平极显著上升(P<0.001); 注射MT后24h, 精巢和卵巢Foxl2 mRNA的表达水平均极显著升高(P<0.001)。结果表明, E2和MT促进Foxl2表达, E2促进其表达的性别差异比MT明显。研究可为了解Foxl2的功能及明确外源性激素调控中华鳖Foxl2的分子机制提供基础资料。

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ASIAN CARP EXPANSION IN THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER: FOCUSING ON THE LEADING EDGE OF THE INVASION FRONT
Sara TRIPP, Quinton PHELPS
2018, 42(6): 1075 -1080 doi: 10.7541/2018.132
[摘要](120) [HTML全文](58) [PDF 360KB](7)
摘要:
Asian carp are expanding their range throughout the Mississippi River; however, abundance is thought to be highest in reaches within close proximity to the Illinois River. In the Mississippi River, Lock and Dam 19 (L&D 19) at Keokuk, Iowa is the primary barrier to slow the expansion upstream. As Asian carp abundance increases below L&D 19, it is important to investigate potential means of control (i.e., reduction through harvest and barriers) that will prevent complete invasion of the Mississippi River above L&D 19. Silver Carp and Bighead Carp were collected below L&D 19, a subsample were implanted with ultrasonic transmitters to evaluate passage through the lock chamber and the remainder were used to determine population dynamics at the leading edge of invasion. Although the dam portion of the structure poses a complete barrier to upstream expansion, we documented lock chamber passage demonstrating the lock chamber has the capability to provide passage upstream. Based on the results of the population assessment, in order to induce recruitment overfishing at this leading edge of invasion, Asian carp will need to be intensively harvested at 300 mm and larger. The combination of commercial fishing efforts and research investigating ways to prevent passage upstream must be employed.
A RAPID ASSESSMENT APPROACH FOR EVALUATING SILVER CARP GENDER
Michael C. WOLF, Quinton E. PHELPS, Justin R. SEIBERT, Sara J. TRIPP
2018, 42(6): 1081 -1083 doi: 10.7541/2018.133
[摘要](180) [HTML全文](63) [PDF 190KB](12)
摘要:
Silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix were introduced into the U.S. to control water quality in aquaculture ponds. From this point of origin, silver carp escaped into nearby rivers through multiple flood events. Because of their documented negative effects on native biota, silver carp have been labeled as problematic. Therefore, evaluating the biology and ecology of these non-indigenous species is critical. Multiple parameters are needed to evaluate silver carp populations (length, weight, age, and sex). Furthermore, developing methods for rapidly acquiring these data are needed. In relation to sex determination, sexual dimorphism was observed where males exhibit distinct pectoral fin ray features. Specifically, males have pronounced ridges or a " rough patch” on the dorsal surface of pectoral fins. Therefore, to test if this was an applicable way of determining silver carp gender; silver carp were collected from Midwestern U.S. rivers (N=2015) in the fall of 2011 (N=870), spring of 2012 (N=645), winter of 2013—2014 (N=202) and summer 2015 (N=323) via electrofishing. For each silver carp collected, presence (e.g., rough patch) or absence (e.g., smooth) of pronounced ridges on the top side of the pectoral fins was recorded, and an incision was made in the body cavity to identify gender. Based on the results of our evaluation, gender was correctly identified over 99% of the time (2006 out of 2015) based on the pectoral fin dimorphism. In the samples taken in the winter of 2013—2014 and summer of 2015, accuracy for silver carp shorter than 300 mm and longer than 800 mm was 53.7% (19 out of 41) while accuracy for silver carp between 300 mm and 800 mm total length was 98.9% (289 out of 292). This study provides a rapid assessment approach for evaluating silver carp gender.
AGE-0 SILVER CARP AND GIZZARD SHAD DAILY GROWTH AND HATCH TIMING IN THE MIDDLE MISSISSIPPI RIVER
Michael C. WOLF, Kevin HAUPT, Quinton E. PHELPS
2018, 42(6): 1084 -1088 doi: 10.7541/2018.134
[摘要](107) [HTML全文](54) [PDF 321KB](3)
摘要:
The establishment of a highly efficient planktivore, Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), in the Mississippi River Basin has been documented as having negative impacts on native planktivore populations. Silver carp have the potential, to alter the trophic food web through negative interactions with native planktivores in large river systems. Due to increasing Silver carp ranges, interactions between Silver carp and other native planktivores is likely to increase. One abundant native planktivore that is often found in similar habitats as Silver carp is Gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum). Potential competition for resources exists because of overlapping habitat use and forage. Given the similarities between these two planktivores, we sought to evaluate daily growth rates and determine hatch dates of age-0 Silver carp and Gizzard shad in the Middle Mississippi River. Silver carp and Gizzard shad were collected from the Middle Mississippi River using an electrified surface trawl from June through September with sizes ranging from 21—65 mm total length for Gizzard shad and 24—85 mm total length for Silver carp. A sample of age-0 fish (n=697) was collected at the end of the growing season including 292 Gizzard shad and 405 Silver carp. Size structure (total length in mm) of Silver carp (49.05±0.41; \begin{document}$\overline {{{X}}} $\end{document} ± SE) was significantly greater (T= –16.43, df=695, P<0.001) than Gizzard shad (38.95 ± 0.45). Hatch dates were similar between Silver carp (July 26th to August 18th) and Gizzard shad (July 28th to August 19th). Growth of Silver carp (2.24 mm per day) was significantly greater (P<0.001,T= –11.1, df=82) than Gizzard shad (1.72 mm per day). Mortality was similar between Silver carp (28.1%) and Gizzard shad (25.1%) at this early life stage. The faster growth rates in Silver carp result in Silver carp entering the winter season larger in size with likely an increased capacity to consume plankton and decreased predation ultimately leading to higher recruitment. Knowing that there exists an overlap between Silver carp and Gizzard shad diets and habitat could alone call cause for concern. Adding that spawning occurs at a similar time and Silver carp have the ability to outgrow Gizzard shad early in life leads to major concerns about food web balance. Knowing that invasive planktivores have already shown to alter food webs in aquatic systems in North America, extra caution should be taken.
FISH ASSEMBLAGE RESPONSES TO DIFFERENT SECONDARY CHANNEL DESIGNS IN THE LOWER MISSISSIPPI RIVER, U.S.A.: A TEMPLATE FOR RIVER RESTORATION
Joseph E. KAISER, Shannon C. F. SMITH, Jr., HAROLD L. SCHRAMM, Michael A. EGGLETON
2018, 42(6): 1089 -1106 doi: 10.7541/2018.135
[摘要](271) [HTML全文](115) [PDF 624KB](12)
摘要:
The lower Mississippi River (LMR) has been heavily modified for multiple human purposes such as navigation, flood control, and bank stabilization. However, the LMR simultaneously supports a diverse fish fauna that includes recreational and commercial fisheries. Due to river training and diversion structures constructed during the past 80 years, the historic characteristics of the LMR have been drastically altered and have likely influenced fishes and fisheries in the system. One common restoration measure used throughout the LMR has been to " notch” wing-dike structures that close secondary (side) river channels. Dike notching allows year-round flows through secondary channels, which enhances habitat diversity and promotes biological productivity at the ecosystem scale. Although notching is presumed good for LMR fishes and other biota, few studies have examined its effects on fish assemblages. In this study, fish assemblages were sampled at seven LMR secondary channels spanning from river kilometer (rkm) 628 (Louisiana-Mississippi, U.S.A.) upstream to rkm 1504 (Missouri-Kentucky, U.S.A.). Four secondary channels were termed " permanent” (i.e., with notched dikes) while three secondary channels were termed " temporary” (i.e., without notched dikes). Fishes were sampled by boat-mounted electrofishing conducted during falling and low stages from 1995—1997. Fish assemblages differed between permanent and temporary secondary channels, and varied somewhat between falling and low stages. Gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum), threadfin shad (D. petenense), and white bass (Morone chrysops) demonstrated consistent preferences for low-current conditions associated with temporary secondary channels. Conversely, blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus), flathead catfish (Pylodictis olivaris), and freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) were more associated with permanent secondary channels. Future restoration strategies in the LMR should consider dike notching and resultant maintenance of permanent secondary channels in selected river reaches. However, temporary secondary channels also contain unique fish species, and also appear to be important sites of riverine primary production. Restoration strategies should consider a balance of both secondary channel types, which should support the greatest biodiversity for the LMR ecosystem.
COMPARISONS OF SELECTIVITY BY FOUR FISHING METHODS ON FISH COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT IN A SHALLOW YANGTZE LAKE, AND IMPLICATIONS FOR FISHERY MANAGEMENT
Shao-Wen YE, Wen-Tao ZENG, Yu-Shun CHEN, Tang-Lin ZHANG, Jia-Shou LIU, Zhong-Jie LI
2018, 42(6): 1107 -1115 doi: 10.7541/2018.136
[摘要](100) [HTML全文](53) [PDF 528KB](2)
摘要:
Knowledge of the vulnerability of different species and size groups to various types of fishing methods is vital to the development of optimal harvesting strategies and rational exploitation of fish resources. In this study, the selectivity of four types of fishing methods (weir nets, gill nets, electrofishing, and cormorants) used simultaneously in a typical multi-species shallow lake (Lake Niushan, China) within the Yangtze River basin, was compared for catch composition, efficiency, and size selection. Species selectivity was evaluated with the index of relative importance (IRI). Potential fishing effects on the trophic structure of fish community were analyzed by calculating the mean trophic level (MTL) of the catches and the weight ratio between prey and predator fishes. Results indicated that the use of weir nets and electrofishing should be reduced or eliminated, because they were relatively unselective and caught many species, including juvenile individuals. Fishing efforts of cormorants should be restricted due to their high fishing efficiency, especially on piscivorous fishes. Gill nets with appropriate mesh size are likely to be a more sustainable fishing method since they were more selective in capturing larger individuals and could balance the prey-predator relationship. We suggest shifting from single-species approaches toward multi-species management, and taking trophic interactions into account to better manage fishery resources.
ASSESSING FISH ASSEMBLAGES IN A SHALLOW YANGTZE RIVER LAKE USING MULTI-MESH GILLNETS AND DENSE-MESH WEIRS
Chuan-Bo GUO, Rui WANG, Xiao QU, Wei XIN, Yu-Shun CHEN, Zhong-Jie LI
2018, 42(6): 1116 -1123 doi: 10.7541/2018.137
[摘要](105) [HTML全文](52) [PDF 463KB](1)
摘要:
To assess possible bias of different fishing methods is essential to appropriate fisheries management. In the current study, fish assemblage structure of a shallow Yangtze River lake was assessed by combining one international standard sampling gear (multi-mesh gillnet), and one traditional Chinese gear (the dense-mesh weir). Using Lake Biandantang as a case study, a total of 27 fish species were collected from the two gears combined, including 2 new species that had not been recorded previously in this lake. Results suggested that fish assemblages had changed greatly compared to a previous study conducted in the 1990s. Specifically, differences were found in species composition, abundance, biomass, and length distributions collected from the two gears. Difference in total length (TL) distributions of fishes caught was the most conspicuous change. Fishes collected from the weir ranged from 40—70 mmTL, whereas fishes collected from gillnets ranged from 90—140 mmTL. Multivariate ordinations based on relative abundance and biomass data also indicated fish assemblage structural differences between the two gears. The comparative results showed that the multi-mesh gillnet was effective at assessing fish assemblages in shallow lakes, such as those found along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. Additionally, assessments using only one gear could have some limitations with respect to interpreting fish assemblage changes over time.
SPATIAL PATTERN OF FISH ASSEMBLAGES ALONG THE RIVER-RESERVOIR GRADIENT CAUSED BY THE THREE GORGE RESERVOIR (TGR)
Peng-Cheng LIN, Fei LIU, Ming-Zheng LI, Xin GAO, Huan-Zhang LIU
2018, 42(6): 1124 -1134 doi: 10.7541/2018.138
[摘要](97) [HTML全文](53) [PDF 575KB](6)
摘要:
We analysed spatial pattern in the fish assemblage structure along a longitudinal gradient of the Upper Yangtze River and the Three Gorges Reservoir. We tested the hypothesis that shifts from lotic to lentic environment affect the richness and structure of the fish assemblage. Samplings were carried out from 2005 to 2012 in four zones:(1) Hejiang reach, river upstream from the reservoir; (2) Mudong reach, upper part of the reservoir; (3) Wanzhou reach, middle part of the reservoir, and (4) Zigui reach, lower part of the reservoir. A total of 368706 fish representing 132 native species of 17 families were collected during the study period with Cyprinidae as the dominant group. The results showed that the native species richness decreased while the non-native species increased from river (Hejiang reach) to reservoir (Zigui reach). Patterns in fish assemblage ordination evaluated by correspondence analysis reflected a clear division of the riverine and reservoir zones. Uppermost sampling stations were characterized by species characteristic of flowing waters, whereas in the lowland most lentic species were captured. Further, 22 species, three functional groups (rheophilic, equilibrium, insectivorous) were identified for the upper reach and 16 species, three functional groups (herbivorous, planktivorous, stagnophilic) for the lowland reach by indicator species analysis (P<0.05). Therefore, it is evident that impoundment of the Three Gorges Reservoir is the major driving factor to structuring the fish assemblage structure along the longitudinal gradient from river to the reservoir. Different fisheries management actions should be made to conserve or rehabilitate native fish assemblages and control invasive non-native species.
EFFECTS OF AQUACULTURE ON PHYTOPLANKTON COMMUNITIES OF LAKES IN THE MIDDLE REACH OF THE YANGTZE RIVER BASIN
Ying-Xue ZHANG, Rui WANG, Xiao QU, Wen-Tong XIA, Wei XIN, Chuan-Bo GUO, Yu-Shun Chen
2018, 42(6): 1135 -1143 doi: 10.7541/2018.139
[摘要](159) [HTML全文](67) [PDF 482KB](2)
摘要:
There is limited information available on effects of aquaculture on lake ecosystems. Community structure and biodiversity of phytoplankton were investigated from July to September, 2015 in 23 lakes in the middle reach of the Yangtze River Basin, which include four groups: reservoir group (A), aquaculture ban group (B), low stocking aquaculture group (C) and high stocking aquaculture group (D). The analysis showed that dominant genera of the four groups were different. Group A was dominated by Pseudanabaena (Y=0.642) and Planktolyngbya (Y=0.064). Group B was dominated by Merismopedia (Y=0.428), Planktolyngbya (Y=0.118), Pseudanabaena (Y=0.133), and Scenedesmus (Y=0.066). Group C was dominated by Pseudanabaena (Y=0.395), Merismopedia (Y=0.097), and Planktolyngbya (Y=0.122). Group D was dominated by Merismopedia (Y=0.308), Microcystis (Y=0.118), and Pseudanabaena (Y=0.077). The phytoplankton abundance in group A was significantly lower than those in other lake groups (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in Shannon-Wiener index, Margalef index and Pielou index of phytoplankton among the four lake groups. The study indicated that fish culture could affect the abundance and dominant genera of phytoplankton, which may provide some implications for lake ecosystem management.
POPULATION DYNAMICS AND SECONDARY PRODUCTION OF CORBICULA FLUMINEA (MÜLLER, 1774) IN A TYPICAL AQUACULTURAL LAKE (DATONG) OF THE CENTRAL YANGTZE RIVER BASIN, CHINA
De-Liang LI, Jian ZHANG, Jie PI, Zi-Han GAO, Tiao-Yi XIAO, Yu-Shun CHEN
2018, 42(6): 1144 -1152 doi: 10.7541/2018.140
[摘要](40) [HTML全文](21) [PDF 573KB](3)
摘要:
Samples of Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774) were collected monthly from March 2011 to February 2012 in the Datong Lake to study its population dynamics and secondary production in its native environment. A total of 4,108C. fluminea were collected and measured, with shell length (SL) ranging from 3.41 to 29.58 mm, and wet weight (WW) ranged from 0.005 to 10.03 g. The calculated SL-WW equation was log WW = –3.52+3.08 log SL (R2=0.97), which showed that the growth curve of C. fluminea followed a positive allometric pattern. The recruitment patterns peaked in one from March to April and the other one during the months of August to October. The mean annual abundance and biomass ( \begin{document}$\bar B$\end{document} ) were (274±95) ind./m2 and (20.1±5.7) g AFDW/m2 (Ash Free Dry Weight, AFDW), respectively. The annual secondary production (P) was estimated to be 23.90 g AFDW/m2·year, resulting in a P/ \begin{document}$\bar B$\end{document} ratio of 1.20/year and a turnover time of 298 days. The asymptotic maximum length (L), curvature parameter (K) and seasonal oscillation in growth rate (C) derived from the von Bertalanffy Seasonal Growth Formula (VBSGF) were 31.91 mm, 0.45/year, and 0.84, respectively. The slowest growth period was in January, and the potential lifespan (tmax) was estimated to be 4.44 years. The total mortality (Z), natural mortality (M) and fishing mortality rates (F) estimated were 1.68/year, 0.89/year and 0.79/year, respectively. Its exploitation rate (E=0.47) indicated a slightly high exploited stock that needs some management intervention to maintain the sustainability of this fishery resource.
MAPPING SPATIOTEMPORAL TRENDS IN THE ABUNDANCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF MACROPHYTES IN HONGZE LAKE
Chuan-Bo GUO, Wei LI, Ying-Xue ZHANG, Wen-Tong XIA, Wei XIN, Yu-Shun CHEN, Zhong-Jie LI
2018, 42(6): 1153 -1162 doi: 10.7541/2018.141
[摘要](89) [HTML全文](39) [PDF 1022KB](2)
摘要:
A comprehensive investigation on macrophyte community in Hongze Lake was conducted seasonally from May 2010 to February 2011. Overall, twelve species representing eight families of macrophytes were identified in Hongze Lake, including nine species of submerged plants, two species of floating-leaved plants, and one species of emerging plant. In general, Potamogeton malaianus, P. maackianu, P. pectinatus and P. crispus were the four dominant species throughout the whole year, the highest biomass of macrophytes was presented in autumn, followed by summer and winter, while spring had the lowest biomass of macrophytes. Based on field data, we used kriging interpolation in ArcGis to map the spatiotemporal distribution of the entire macrophyte community as well as each of the four dominant species. From the GIS maps we observed that the northern area of the lake, namely the Chengzihu region, had the highest biomass of macrophytes potentially as a result of better water quality and greater transparency. Potential factors that affected the community structure, biomass, and distribution patterns of macrophytes considerably were then discussed. The results of this study illuminate the need for more information on the role and importance of aquatic macrophytes in shallow lake ecosystems. Conservation of macrophytes should be taken to maintain the lake ecosystem health.
EFFECTS OF RELEASE SIZE ON SURVIVAL, GROWTH AND YIELD OF HATCHERY-REARED MANDARIN FISH STOCKED IN A SHALLOW YANGTZE LAKE
Wei LI, Xing-Wei CAI, Chuan-Bo GUO, Tang-Lin ZHANG, Jia-Shou LIU, Zhong-Jie LI
2018, 42(6): 1163 -1168 doi: 10.7541/2018.142
[摘要](111) [HTML全文](49) [PDF 317KB](3)
摘要:
A tag-release-recapture study was conducted to evaluate effects of size at release on survival, growth and yield of hatchery-reared mandarin fish Siniperca chautsi fingerlings stocked in a shallow Yangtze lake. In May and June 2012, a total of 2400 juvenile mandarin fish were graded into three size groups, identified with coded wire tags and tail fin clipping, and released into Xiaosai Lake. Mandarin fish were collected after the lake drained in December 2012. Overall, a total of 973 mandarin fish individuals were captured, with an average survival rate of 40.5%. Survival rate of large sized group (63%) is more than three times higher than that of small sized group (19.5%) and 1.5 times higher than that of middle sized group (39.1%). The mean final length and weight of mandarin fish increased with the increase of release size and showed significant difference among groups. Yield was significantly affected by release size, which was the highest in large sized group and the lowest in small sized group. The net income of stocked mandarin fish increased with the increase of fish size at release. Our results indicated that mandarin fish size at release can have a major impact on success of hatchery releases, and it is suggested that the optimum release size of mandarin fish should not be less than 50 mm in Xiaosai Lake.
FECUNDITY AND REPRODUCTIVE STRATEGY OF PTYCHOBARBUS DIPOGON POPULATIONS FROM THE MIDDLE REACHES OF THE YARLUNG ZANGBO RIVER
Hai-Ping LIU, Yan-Chao LIU, Shu-Yun LIU, Xiao-Guang SONG, Luo-Jie TSERING, Meng-Jun LIU, Le-Le LIU, Chang-Wei RAO
2018, 42(6): 1169 -1179 doi: 10.7541/2018.143
[摘要](64) [HTML全文](34) [PDF 586KB](5)
摘要:
The Ptychobarbus dipogon of the Schizothoracinae subfamily, is an endemic economic fish species in Tibet Autonomous Region, China. Due to environment deterioration and invasion of alien species the population size of this species is decreasing; a study is urgently required to determine fecundity and reproductive strategy in order to conserve this natural resource. In this study, to investigate the fecundity and its relationship of body length, weight and age, we captured 1030 individuals in the middle Yarlung Zangbo River during two separate periods, one from February to March in 2013 and the other from February to June in 2014. The results showed that the standard length (SL) of males is concentrated in the 325—400 mm range, and the SL of females is above 375 mm. Sixty five females were at stages IV and V of sexual maturity, with SL 320—500 mm, weight 411.6—1328.0 g. Using the SL 50% method, the first female sexual maturity age was estimated to be 13.0 years and about 360.90 mm, while the first male maturity age was estimated to be 13.5 years and length 354.53 mm. The distributions of egg sizes, gonadal developmental stages and gonadosomatic indexes show that this species follows a synchronous spawning pattern concentrated in the period February to March, with an absolute fecundity at 3487 eggs, with a fecundity to SL ratio of 7.2 eggs/mm and fecundity to weight of 4.3 eggs/g. The absolute fecundity is positively correlated to the SL and the weight, but not significantly correlated to age. The overall male-female ratio was 1.23 鲶1. Suggestions for its conservation have been made based on its low fecundity, late maturity and short breeding period.
EVALUATION OF FECUNDITY OF ERIOCHEIR SINENSIS PARENT CRABS RELEASED INTO THE YANGTZE RIVER ESTUARY
Guang-Peng FENG, Hang-Li ZHANG, Hai-Hua WANG, Jing-Jing XU, Hui JI, Ping ZHUANG
2018, 42(6): 1180 -1185 doi: 10.7541/2018.144
[摘要](37) [HTML全文](22) [PDF 435KB](0)
摘要:
During the reproductive migration of Chinese mitten crab in the Yangtze River estuary, the relationship between fecundity and carapace width of released and wild Chinese mitten crab populations was analyzed, and then the differences between the wild and released populations were compared. The results showed that, with the increase of carapace width (CW), the fecundity (F) of released and wild population crabs increased significantly (P<0.05). In the same range of carapace width, there was no significant differences of the fecundity between the wild and released populations (P>0.05). Regression analysis showed that the relationship between theF and CW of the released population belongs to exponential function, which is F=3.979CW6.208 (R2=0.822). In addition, the relationship between F and CW of the wild population is F=1.696CW6.636 (R2=0.673). Covariance analysis showed that the curves of the wild and released crab populations fit well in significant 0.05. It could be concluded that the fecundity of the wild and released populations was at the same level. There was no significant difference between the wild and released crab population on the relationship of F and CW. The released population could reproduce well in the natural water of the Yangtze River estuary.
DEVELOPMENT OF FIFTEEN EST-SSR MARKERS IN YELLOW PERCH PERCA FLAVESCENS BY DATA MINING FROM PUBLIC EST SEQUENCES
Dan WANG, Hong YAO, Wei-Min WANG, Gui-Wei ZOU, Han-Ping WANG
2018, 42(6): 1186 -1193 doi: 10.7541/2018.145
[摘要](93) [HTML全文](46) [PDF 465KB](3)
摘要:
The yellow perch, Perca flavescens, is an economically significant freshwater fish species in the Midwest of the United States. TypeⅠ markers are useful for comparative mapping and other genetic analyses, but limited quantities in yellow perch. In the present study, EST containing microsatellite sequences were identified and characterized for yellow perch by data mining from updated public EST databases. Out of 21968 EST sequences of yellow perch, about 14.4% of ESTs contain repeat motifs of various types and length. CA repeat was the most abundant dinucleotides. Out of the 62 EST-SSRs for which PCR primers were designed, 15 loci showed polymorphic in a yellow perch population with the alleles per locus ranging from 4 to 19 (average 9). The observed (HO) and expected (HE) heterozygosity of these EST-SSRs were 0.103—0.929 and 0.116—0.934, respectively. Four EST-SSR loci significantly deviated from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) expectation, and the remaining 11 loci were in HWE. These new EST-SSR markers should provide sufficient polymorphism for population genetic studies and genomic mapping of yellow perch.
HISTOLOGICAL STUDIES ON GONADAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE ENDEMIC TIBETAN FISH PTYCHOBARBUS DIPOGON
Ben-He ZENG, Chang-Wei RAO, Hai-Ping LIU
2018, 42(6): 1194 -1202 doi: 10.7541/2018.146
[摘要](110) [HTML全文](64) [PDF 935KB](7)
摘要:
The histology of gonadal development in Ptychobarbus dipogon was studied by using conventional paraffin sections and HE staining, in order to obtain information on its reproductive systems useful for its artificial breeding. The results showed that the development of oocytes can be divided into five phases, and ovarian development can be divided into six stages. In stage V ovaries, ovum worship was found to occur, indicated by the 1.38 鲶1 ratio of small ova to large ova. Phase 3 oocytes were characterized by appearance of yolk granules and follicles; phase 4 oocytes by rapid increase of yolk granules, and the movement of the nucleus toward the animal poles; phase 5 by the fusion of yolk granules, and the separation of oocytes from follicular membranes to float in the ovarian cavity. Male P. dipogen had lobular testes, and their germ cells can be categorized into spermatogonia, spermatocytes; spermatids; and spermatozoa. Their testes also developed in six stages. The species followed a batch-synchronous spawning pattern.
SEXUAL DIMORPHISM IN SEXUALLY MATURE GLYPTOSTERNUM MACULATUM IN TIBET AUTONOMOUS REGION, CHINA
Ying-Zi PAN, Hai-Ping LIU, Jian-She ZHOU, Mei-Qun CHEN
2018, 42(6): 1203 -1209 doi: 10.7541/2018.147
[摘要](105) [HTML全文](52) [PDF 498KB](4)
摘要:
Sexual dimorphism refers to the morphological differentiation between males and females in the same population, such as sizes, morphological features, and colors. Cold water fish Glyptosternum maculatum, is an endemic teleost species of notable economic importance and with high potential for controlled rearing of the species in Tibet Autonomous Region. In this study, morphological measurements and related analysis were conducted on sexually mature G. maculatum to investigate their morphological differences in Tibet Autonomous Region. Results indicated the sexually mature populations indeed display really displayed significant sexual dimorphism: males exhibited significantly greater body length, weight, and males also exhibited in addition to greater tail length while females exhibited significantly greater eye diameter, body depth, trunk length, and lengths of dorsal, pectoral, pelvic, anal, and caudal fins at a given body length. Principal components analysis on 16 morphological parameters showed that the differences were largely due to features of the body shape (including lengths of body parts and fins) and the head, and differences in the above features differences contributed 76.7%. The t-statistic test on the allometry index b in the total length-weight function showed that during the breeding season, the total lengths and weights of G. maculatum females developed proportionally, while the male specimens were allometrical.
LENGTH-WEIGHT RELATIONSHIPS OF 18 FISH SPECIES FROM LAKE KUILEI, YANGTZE RIVER BASIN, CHINA
Xing-Wei CAI, Wei LI, Zhong-Jie LI, Tang-Lin ZHANG, Shao-Wen YE, Hou-Rui FAN, Jia-Shou LIU
2018, 42(6): 1210 -1213 doi: 10.7541/2018.148
[摘要](284) [HTML全文](114) [PDF 295KB](14)
摘要:
This study is based on monthly sampling (from April 2013 to April 2015) of 18 fish species representing three families. Samples were obtained using benthic fyke-nets, block nets, and multi-mesh gillnets in Lake Kuilei, a shallow lake of the Yangtze River basin, China (N 31º24′ , E 120º51′). Using ordinary least-squares linear regression, length-weight relationships of these fish species were estimated, with equations for 3 species reported for the first time. The maximum total length records of the 15 species exceeded those reported in FishBase. This paper provides new LWR equations for these species to be included in FishBase.
ANESTHETIC EFFECTS OF MS-222 ON SCHIZOTHORAX O’CONNORI LLORD IN TWO SIZE RANGES
Yan-Chao LIU, Hai-Ping LIU, Shu-Yun LIU, Xi-Feng LI, Xiao-Guang SONG
2018, 42(6): 1214 -1223 doi: 10.7541/2018.149
[摘要](241) [HTML全文](139) [PDF 689KB](16)
摘要:
This study examined anesthetic behaviors of Schizothorax o’connori Llord in two size ranges as induced by MS-222, to acquire useful information on anesthesia of said highland fish species in out-of-water activities (surgery, labeling, measurement, etc.). Test results indicated that for both large (25.0±1.5) cm and small-sized (14.8±2.3) cm specimens, respiration rates showed no significant change in anesthetic stages Ⅰ to Ⅲ, and only begun to significantly decline after entering stage Ⅳ. The effective concentrations of MS-222 were 150—180 mg/L and 150 mg/L for two sizes, respectively. The 150—180 mg/L caused large specimens to enter anesthetic stage Ⅳ within 5min, and recovered within 5min; the 150 mg/L caused small specimens to enter stage Ⅳ within 5min, and recovered within 7min; both doses ensured a 100% survival rate after immersion for 20min. For large specimens anesthetized at 180 mg/L for 5min and exposed to air for 0—15min, there was no significant difference in recovery times (P>0.05); for small specimens anesthetized at 150 mg/L for 5min and exposed to air for 0—15min, there were significant differences in recovery (P<0.05).
TEXTURE ANALYSES OF TWO SCHIZOTHORACINAE FISHES IN TIBET AUTONOMOUS REGION, CHINA
Mei-Qun CHEN, Meng TAN, Hai-Ping LIU
2018, 42(6): 1224 -1231 doi: 10.7541/2018.150
[摘要](94) [HTML全文](55) [PDF 362KB](2)
摘要:
Schizothorax macropogon and Ptychobarbus dipogon are important economic fishes in the Yarlung Zangbo River. Both are Schizothoracinaes containing a variety of essential fatty acids with high nutritional values. As food products, the textural characteristics of their meat determine important factors like taste or methods of treatment. To explore the preservation and utilization of fish resources in the Tibet Autonomous Region, China, the texture profile analysis (TPA) method was used to analyze 12 textural parameters. Fish were captured from the Yarlung Zangbo River in Shigatse and Nyingchi City. Principal component analysis showed that the texture of P. dipogon captured from the Nyingchi segment was different from the same species captured in the Shigatse segment, and different from S. macropogon captured from both segments. Factorial analysis indicated that the textural characteristics of Schizothoracinae fishes in Tibet Autonomous Region can be summarized as hardness indices, overcome attraction indices and contractility indices, of which the accumulated variance contribution rate of the first four principal component factors was 81.472%. The three categories of the four principal component axes could be the main deciding parameters of the textural characteristics of Schizothoracinae fishes in Tibet Autonomous Region. This provides scientific data for subsequent development and utilization of Schizothoracinae fishes from the Yarlung Zangbo River in different geographical areas.
SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION CHARACTERISTICS OF ROTIFER RESTING EGGS IN SUB-LAKES OF THE POYANG LAKE WETLAND AREA DURING THE DRY SEASON
Hai-Ming QIN, Jun-Wei YAN, Xue NIE, Wen-Juan WANG, Xiao-Yuan SHEN
2018, 42(6): 1232 -1239 doi: 10.7541/2018.151
[摘要](111) [HTML全文](54) [PDF 619KB](1)
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Our study examined spatial distribution differences of rotifer resting eggs (RRE) in lakes of the Poyang Lake Wetland Area during dry season, January 2015. Field sampling was conducted in both Nanshen Lake and Baisha Lake. We found that densities of RRE in different habitats were significantly different (P<0.05), and their distribution had an obvious gradient. The highest mean density was in the marshland vegetation area of Nanshen Lake, where it was (3.34±1.28) ind./cm3. The density of resting eggs in the Zizania latifolia area was up to 5.45 ind./cm3. The density of RRE was different spatially, with the greatest in the vegetation area, then in the muddy area, and then the lowest in the water area. ANOVAs results showed that water depth, vegetation, and sediment had significant effects on RRE (P=0.001, P=0.007, P<0.001, respectively). The trend of resting egg densities in different aquatic habitats was: emergent aquatic plant > marshland vegetation > floating-leaf plants > submerged plants. The distribution of RRE in areas of different water depths was inconsistent. The density of RRE was higher in the hard than soft sediment.
A REVIEW OF INTERNATIONAL FISHWAYS ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS AND MANAGEMENT PROSPECTS FOR CHINA
Wei-Wei LI, Jiang-Hui BAO, Chao-Shuo ZHANG, Li-Wei WANG, Hong-Tao LI, Jing-Ya WEN, Ming DUAN
2018, 42(6): 1240 -1252 doi: 10.7541/2018.152
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摘要:
Many efforts have been devoted to developing, constructing and refining fishways or fish passage facilities to facilitate the target fish species to pass barriers in fluvial systems. Once dominated by an engineering-focused approach, fishways science nowadays involves a wide range of disciplines from fish behaviour to socioeconomics, and to complex modeling of passage prioritization options in river networks. Designing efficient fishways, with minimal passage delay and post-passage impacts, requires adaptive management and continued innovations. After the completion of fishways construction, corresponding management systems usually need to be improved as well. In the current study, we first reviewed international fishways adaptive management systems (e.g., aspects of development, construction, and management) from 1991 to 2017 reporting on " fishway”, " fish passage”, " fish” and " dam”. The functions of fishways gradually transferred from conservation of economic stocks to overall biodiversity conservation, from facilitating upwards to both upwards and downwards passages, from developing a single project to considering the entire river basin, from fish passing function to habitats restorations as well, and from pure engineering construction to considering adaptive management. Finally, we discussed adaptive management systems and management prospects of fishways for China.

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