李文文, 黄天晴, 谷伟, 刘恩慧, 王高超, 周金鑫, 董福霖, 纪凯, 刘雪峰, 王宪策, 焦文龙, 王炳谦, 徐革锋. 六个虹鳟代表性繁育群体肌肉营养成分分析[J]. 水生生物学报, 2023, 47(9): 1425-1434. DOI: 10.7541/2023.2022.0381
引用本文: 李文文, 黄天晴, 谷伟, 刘恩慧, 王高超, 周金鑫, 董福霖, 纪凯, 刘雪峰, 王宪策, 焦文龙, 王炳谦, 徐革锋. 六个虹鳟代表性繁育群体肌肉营养成分分析[J]. 水生生物学报, 2023, 47(9): 1425-1434. DOI: 10.7541/2023.2022.0381
LI Wen-Wen, HUANG Tian-Qing, GU Wei, LIU En-Hui, WANG Gao-Chao, ZHOU Jin-Xin, DONG Fu-Lin, JI Kai, LIU Xue-Feng, WANG Xian-Ce, JIAO Wen-Long, WANG Bing-Qian, XU Ge-Feng. THE ANALYSIS OF MUSCLE NUTRIENT COMPOSITION OF SIX REPRESENTATIVE BREEDING POPULATION OF RAINBOW TROUT (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS)[J]. ACTA HYDROBIOLOGICA SINICA, 2023, 47(9): 1425-1434. DOI: 10.7541/2023.2022.0381
Citation: LI Wen-Wen, HUANG Tian-Qing, GU Wei, LIU En-Hui, WANG Gao-Chao, ZHOU Jin-Xin, DONG Fu-Lin, JI Kai, LIU Xue-Feng, WANG Xian-Ce, JIAO Wen-Long, WANG Bing-Qian, XU Ge-Feng. THE ANALYSIS OF MUSCLE NUTRIENT COMPOSITION OF SIX REPRESENTATIVE BREEDING POPULATION OF RAINBOW TROUT (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS)[J]. ACTA HYDROBIOLOGICA SINICA, 2023, 47(9): 1425-1434. DOI: 10.7541/2023.2022.0381

六个虹鳟代表性繁育群体肌肉营养成分分析

THE ANALYSIS OF MUSCLE NUTRIENT COMPOSITION OF SIX REPRESENTATIVE BREEDING POPULATION OF RAINBOW TROUT (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS)

  • 摘要: 研究主要通过分析虹鳟(Oncorhynchus mykiss)不同繁育群体间肌肉品质和营养成分的种质特性, 为虹鳟遗传资源的保护利用、优良性状的筛选及新品种选育提供基础数据资料。采用凯氏定氮、索氏抽提和水解氨基酸等现行国家标准测定肌肉中的营养成分、氨基酸和脂肪酸的含量, 对国内6个不同地区虹鳟代表性繁育群体进行肌肉营养成分和品质的系统分析和评价。结果表明, 各繁育群体水分含量(66.50%—77.00%)、灰分含量(1.12%—1.43%)、粗蛋白含量(19.00%—21.84%)和粗脂肪含量(2.04%—9.08%)有显著差异(P<0.05); 17种氨基酸总量(TAA)为15.27%—18.90%, 各群体氨基酸指数(AAS)、化学指数(CS)和必需氨基酸指数(EAAI)均高于联合国粮食及农业组织(Food and Agriculture Organization, FAO)标准; 23种脂肪酸中包括8种饱和脂肪酸(SFA)、4种单不饱和脂肪酸(MUFA)和11种多不饱和脂肪酸(PUFA), 其含量分别为17.81%—31.75%、27.86%—30.35%和40.25%—54.32%, PUFA/SFA的比值介于1.34—3.05。综上所述, 6个虹鳟代表性繁育群体肌肉营养成分较均衡, 符合FAO/WHO标准, 均为符合人们营养需求优质蛋白质, 可作为虹鳟繁育及新品种培育的优异资源。

     

    Abstract: Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is an important cold-water fish with high nutritional and economic value in China, however, less researches of high-quality rainbow trout germplasm resources populations were reported. This study aimed to provide essential data for assessing the nutrient composition of rainbow trout muscle, trait screening and the breeding process of new species by comprehensively evaluating the muscle nutritional components and quality of representative breeding populations of rainbow trout in six different regions. The 2—3 years old rainbow trout originally from Mudanjiang, Heilongjiang (HM), Ningan, Heilongjiang (HN), Gansu (GL), Xinjiang (XY), Jilin (JB) and Liaoning (LB). Thirty fish from each population were divided equally into three replicates, and the composition and content of moisture, crude protein, crude fat, ash content, amino acids and fatty acids in muscle were measured according to the national standard. The results showed that there were significant differences (P<0.05) in moisture (66.50%—77.00%), ash (1.12%—1.43%), crude protein (19.00%—21.84%) and crude fat (2.04%—9.08%) among the breeding groups, and the crude protein content of HN (21.26%) and GL (21.84%) was significantly higher than the other populations (P<0.05). In addition, the protein content of arious groups was greater than 16.00% and met the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)/Word Health Organization (WHO) Standard (2013). Seventeen amino acids were detected in the six breeding populations with a total amino acid contents (TAA) were 15.27%—18.90%. The total amino acid components were significantly higher in LB and JB than those in the other four breeding populations (P<0.05), and also had higher essential amino acid index scores (EAAI). Among the 17 amino acids, Glu had the highest content (2.64%—2.88%), followed by Asp (1.58%—2.03%). The content of fresh amino acids was as high as 11.25%—11.79%, indicating that rainbow trout muscles were fresh and tender, and the amino acid index (AAS), chemical index (CS) and EAAI of all populations were higher than the standard of FAO. Twenty-three fatty acids were detected in the six breeding populations, containing eight saturated fatty acid (SFA), four monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and eleven polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), with contents of 17.81%—31.75%, 27.86%—30.35% and 40.25%—54.32%. The PUFA to SFA ratio was between 1.34 to 3.05. HN and XY had higher SFA than other populations, while HM and GL had higher PUFA than other populations. Additionally, JB and LB had relatively higher MUFA than other populations. Taken together, six representative breeding groups of rainbow trout have balanced muscular nutrients and meet the FAO/WHO standard, which provides germplasm resources for rainbow trout breeding.

     

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