From the waters of the Heilongjiang River basin, 80 species of aquatic vascular plant belonging to 26 families were collected. Among them, Phramitis communis, Nymphoides peltala and Myriophyllum spicatum are dominant species, whicle Calitriche hermaphroditica, Eurgale ferox and Sagittaria natans are casual ones. The abundance, frequency- index, dominance and ecological types of the aquatic plants in 10 ponds near Harbin were anylyzed.The major communities of aquatic plants in the Shonghua River basin are Zizania caduciflora and Uticularia vulgaris; in Wuyuer River are Phragmitis communis and Myriophyllum spicatum; in Tongken and Alun Rivers are Typha davidiana and Ranunculus kauffmannii. From south to north in the province, the aquatic plant communities gradually change from complex to simple and the type of community are becoming torrential instead of boggy.Three ponds growing vascular plants at Harbin Fishery Institute were quantitatively analyzed. According to Lindeman's law and Chen Hongda's formula, the biomass was converted to energy content and, in turn, the potential fishery productivity.